The Divinity of the Messiah: a consideration of the claims of Jesus of Nazareth


Time and again, it has been a theme of long discussions among Jews as well as Gentiles: Is Messiah divine, or simply a human being, particularly, when considering the claims of Jesus of Nazareth?1  Some of the greatest Jewish personalities believed in His divinity. The Jewish statesman and Prime Minister of England, Benjamin Disraeli (1804 – 1881) said: “Who can deny that Jesus of Nazareth, the incarnate Son of the Most High God, is the eternal glory of the Jewish people?” – And Shalom Asch (1880 – 1957) confessed: “Jesus Christ to me is the outstanding personality of all time, all history, both as Son of God and as Son of man. Everything He ever said or did has value for us today, and that is something you can say of no other man, alive or dead.”2
Some orthodox Jews would regard such statements as blasphemy. They refer to the Shema: “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is One” (Deut. 6:4) – ignorant of the fact that this great confession of faith is also taught in the Brit Hachadasha (New Testament: Mark 12:29; James 2:19). Yet most remarkable is the interpretation by one of the celebrated Jewish sages, Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai (2nd century)3 who says, “ ‘Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is One.’ They are verily one and therefore called ‘One’. But there are three names – how can they be one? Only through the revelation of the Holy Spirit can it be known that three are One (seen with closed eyes)” (Sohar II, 43b).

Let us now see what the Scripture says on this important subject: Is Messiah divine or not?


The prophets of Israel gave Messiah, the son of David, remarkable names:

a) His mother shall call His name: IMMANUEL (Isa. 7:14; cf. 8:8-10).
b) The people shall call His name: MIGHTY GOD, EVERLASTING FATHER (Isa. 9:6).
c) And God says: He shall be called: JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS 4 (Jer. 23:6).

Why such names? Would it not be blasphemy to call a child by these divine names? Or could it be that God indeed visited us in the person of the Messiah? Yes, Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist, prophesied concerning His birth: “Blessed be the LORD God of Israel; for he has visited and redeemed his people, and has raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David” (Luke 1:68,69). The apostles confirmed this. Matthew writes: “All this took place that it might be fulfilled what was spoken by the LORD through the prophet: “The virgin5 shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel – which means, God with us” (Matt. 1:22, 23). And Paul says: “God was in Messiah, reconciling the world unto himself. – In him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily” (2 Cor. 5:19; Col. 2:9).

You may reply: “This is how the Christians interpret the biblical names of Messiah. But what are the opinions of the Rabbis?” Well, Rashi, the originator of the modern school of rabbinic interpretations(1040-1105) comments on lsa. 7:14 – “This means that our Creator shall be with us. And this is the sign: The one who will conceive is a girl (naarah) who never in her life had intercourse with any man” (Mikraot Gedolot). Maimonides (1135 – 1204) interprets Isa. 9:6 – “That He calls Him God in a distinctive manner, is to say with it that His glory surpasses that of all other children of men” (Letter to Rabbi Jacob Alfajumi). – And Rabbi Abba Bar Kahana (late third century) answers the question: “What is the name of King Messiah? – Jehovah is His name, for it is written: This is the name whereby He shall be called: Jehovah our Righteousness” (Midrash Echa 1:51).6


It is well known that Bethlehem in Judea was the birthplace of Jesus. This is clearly recorded in the New Testament (Luke 2:4-11). When Herod inquired of the chief priests and scribes where Messiah was to be born, they referred to the prophecy of Micah: “But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, … out of you shall come a governor who shall rule my people Israel” (Matt. 2:4-6)7 . It is significant, when speaking about Messiah’s natural birth, the prophet at the same time emphasizes His pre-existence: “His goings forth are from of old, from everlasting” (Micah 5:2). The same is spoken of the personified divine wisdom: “The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was” (Prov. 8:22-23).

The question is: “Was Jesus conscious of His pre-existence?” Yes, indeed! He said: “Before Abraham was, I am” (John 8:58). “I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world; again, I leave the world, and go to the Father” (John 16:28; cf. 13:3b)8. He called Himself “the bread of God which came down from heaven” (John 6:33,38,41,42,50,51,58). When some were displeased with His words, He replied: “Does this offend you? What if you will see the Son of man ascend to where he was before?” (John 6:61,62). Later, before His departure, He prayed: “Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory which I had with you before the world was … you loved me before the foundation of the world” (John 17:5, 24b).


“Remember your Creators in the days of your youth” (Eccl. 12:1). “Let Israel rejoice in his Creators” (Ps. 149:2). Why do we find here in the original text the word in plural form? Were there more than one at work in the creation? Yes! “God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And God created man in his image, in the image of God created he him” (Gen. 1:26a, 27a).9 To whom did God say this? The speaker and the One who is addressed are obviously of the same image and likeness. Rabbi Simeon Ben Jochai (2nd century) interprets: “To whom did the Highest say this? The Highest said it to Jehovah” (Tikoone Sohar). And he comments on Prov. 8:30 – “The Masterbuilder said to the Lord of the building: ‘Let us make man in our image after our likeness’ ” (Sohar, Gen. page 22, Amsterdam Ed.).

Do we find in the Brith Hachadasha (New Testament) that Messiah was there at the beginning of creation? Yes, we read (John 1:1-3): “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him nothing was made that has been made.” Targum Jonathan (4th century) paraphrases: “The World of Jehovah created man in His likeness, in the likeness of Jehovah, Jehovah created, male and female created He them.” There are still further references in the Brith Hachadasha which show that Messiah created not only man: “By him all things ware created, things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or authorities; all things were created by him and for him. And he is before all things, and all things subsist together by him” (Col. 1:16,17; cf. Heb. 1:2b).

This had already been revealed in the Tenach (Old Testament). We read (Proverbs 30:4): “Who has ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who has gathered the wind in his fists? Who has bound the waters in a mantle? Who has established all the ends of the earth; What is his name, and what is his Son’s name, if you can tell?” – Messiah Jesus was fully aware that this prophecy referred to Him. For He said: “No man has ascended up to heaven, but he who came down from heaven, even the Son of man who is in heaven” (John 3:13). He called Himself: “The beginning of the creation of God” (Rev. 3:14b).


Notwithstanding the clear statement concerning our Creator: “What is his name, and what is HIS SON’s name?” – there are some who argue: “How can God have a son?” as if there could be anything too wonderful for the Almighty (Gen. 18:14; Jer. 32:17,27; Job 42:2,3). Nevertheless, still other references in the Tenach speak about Messiah being the Son of God par excellence. David received the promise: “I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall be of your sons, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build me a house, and I will establish his throne for ever. I will be his Father, and HE WILL BE MY SON.” (1 Chron. 17:11b-13a)10. In Psalm 2:7 we read: “I will declare the decree: The LORD has said unto me, YOU ARE MY SON; this day have I begotten you.” The Rabbis regard this verse as referring to the Messiah. Talmud Sukkah 52a says: “Our Rabbis taught, The Holy One, blessed be He, will say to the Messiah, the Son of David. . . ‘Ask of Me anything, and I will give to you’, as it is said (Psalm 2:7,8): ‘I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me, YOU ARE MY SON; this day have I begotten you. Ask of me, and I will give the nations for your inheritance’.”

Moreover, Midrash Thillim says (on Psalm 2:7): “It is written, ‘I saw in the night visions, and, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man; and he came even to the Ancient of days, and he was brought near before Him. And there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, that all the people, nations, and languages should serve him’ (Dan. 7:13,14). In another comment, the verse is read: ‘I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: YOU ARE MY SON … ask of Me and I will give the nations for your inheritance, and the ends of the earth for your possession’ (Psalm 2:7,8). Rabbi Judan said: All these goodly promises are in the decree of the King, the King of kings, who will fulfil them for the Lord Messiah.” Thus, even the Rabbis acknowledge that Messiah as God’s Son, is the rightful heir of His Father’s estate, of the world and all its kingdoms (c.f. Heb. 1:2,5; Matt. 21:38; Shemoth Rabbah, c. 19).

Besides, what about the instruction (Psalm 2:12): “KISS THE SON!”? Some interpret it ‘Do homage in purity!’ but there are eminent Rabbis who translate it as “KISS THE SON!” Rabbi Aben Ezra (1003 – 1167) says: “ ‘KISS THE SON’ refers to the Messiah.” Rabbi Simeon Ben Jochai comments: “KISS THE SON! You are the faithful Shepherd. Concerning You is said: ‘KISS THE SON!’ You are the Mighty One of the earth, the Head of Israel, the Lord of the serving angels, THE SON OF THE HIGHEST, THE SON OF THE HOLY ONE, blessed be He, yea, the Shechinah” (Sohar lll, page 307, Amsterdam Ed.) “You mighty and you angels, KISS THE SON! All of you arise and kiss Him, and receive Him as your LORD and King” (Sohar ll, page 281, Amsterdam Ed.; cf. lV. Esdras, 20:32,37,52).

You may object: “How can we know that this prophecy points to Jesus of Nazareth?” Well, first of all it was announced by the angel to His mother Mary: “You will be with child and give birth to a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called THE SON OF THE HIGHEST; and the LORD God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.” When Mary could not fully comprehend this wonderful message, he explained: “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the Holy One who shall be born of you shall be called THE SON OF GOD” (Luke 1:31,32,35). Indeed, Jesus was very conscious of His Sonship. Beginning His public ministry, He received together with the unction of God’s Spirit, also the sanction of His heavenly Father: “THIS IS MY BELOVED SON, IN WHOM I AM WELL PLEASED!” (Matt. 3:17; cf. 17:5; 2 Pet 1:17,18). John the Baptist who saw the spirit descending from heaven like a dove and remaining on Jesus, testified: “I saw, and bear record that THIS IS THE SON OF GOD” (John 1:34).11

Jesus called Himself not only God’s Son (John 3:17; 5:25; 9:35-37; 10:36; 11:4) but He claimed to be ‘THE ONLY-BEGOTTEN SON OF GOD’. In His conversation with Rabbi Nicodemus, He said: “God so loved the world, that he gave HIS ONLY-BEGOTTEN SON, that whosoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16; cf. v.18). Many of His contemporaries believed in His Sonship. Nathanael marveled: “You are THE SON OF GOD; you are the King of Israel” (John 1:49; cf. 11:27). Peter, the spokesman of the disciples, said: “You are the Messiah, THE SON OF THE LIVING GOD” (Matt. 16:16; John 6:69). Even demons cried out in fear: “What have we to do with you, Jesus, you SON OF GOD?” (Matt. 8:29). Later, when Jesus stood on trial, the high priest said to Him: “I charge you under oath by the living God, that you tell us if you are the Messiah, THE SON OF GOD” (Matt. 26:63), (thus admitting that even the Sanhedrin, the highest court of justice, believed that Messiah is the Son of God12); to which Jesus assented: “I am, and you will see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven” (Mark 14:62), (quoting two Messianic prophecies in reference to Himself: Psalm 110:1 13 and Daniel 7:13).


Messiah is called in the Tenach: “The Lord, whom you seek…. the Angel of the Covenant, who you delight in” (Mal. 3:1). Rabbi Aben Ezra (1093 – 1167) says: “The Lord is both THE DIVINE MAJESTY and the Angel of the Covenant,” while Rabbi David Kimchi (1160 – 1235) says: “The Lord is the King Messiah. He is also the Angel of the Covenant.” On other occasions, He is called “The Angel of Jehovah” and is IDENTIFIED WITH JEHOVAH HIMSELF.14

Did Jesus speak about His equality with the Father? Yes! He said: “No one knows the Son except the Father; nor does any one know the Father, except the Son, and he to whom the Son may be pleased to reveal him” (Matt. 11:27)15; “My Father works hitherto, and I work. For this reason, the Jews tried the harder to kill him; because … he said that God was his Father, making himself EQUAL WITH GOD” (John 5:17,18; cf. 11:4). Furthermore, He said: “Even as the Father raises the dead and quickens them, thus the Son also quickens whom he will. All men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He who honours not the son honours not the Father who has sent him” (John 5:21,23); “I AND THE FATHER ARE ONE” (John 10:30); “If you knew me, you would know my Father also” (John 8: 19); “He who has seen me has seen the Father. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me” (John 14:9b, 11a; 12:44,45); “He who hates me hates my Father also” (John 15:23).

On the night when He was betrayed, Jesus applied Zechariah 13:7 to Himself: “This night all of you will be offended because of me: for it is written, ‘I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad’ ” (Matt. 26;31; cf. John 16:32). Here, notice that the first part of Zechariah 13:7 says: “Awake, O sword, against my Shepherd, even against THE MAN WHO IS MY FELLOW (ytymv rbg), says the LORD of hosts.” Abrabanel, the celebrated Jewish statesman, philosopher and theologian (1437 – 1508) said in bitter opposition: “The words, ‘THE MAN MY FELLOW’, are spoken of Jesus the Nazarene, for according to the sentiment of the children of Edom (i.e. the Christians) and their faith, He was the Son of God, and OF THE SAME SUBSTANCE, and therefore He is called, according to their words, ‘THE MAN MY FELLOW’.” (Note that it is in the Tenach that God Himself calls Him MY FELLOW). 16


When thinking about divine attributes – such as “omniscience, omnipotence and omnipresence” – can we find these characteristics in the life of Jesus the Messiah? Let us see what Scripture has to say about it:

6.1 His omniscience

The Bible tells us that on Messiah rests the Spirit of God in all fulness, giving Him perfect qualification for government: “The Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD” (Is. 11:2).17 Talmud Sanhedrin (93b): “Messiah – as it is written (Is. 11:2) And the Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.” — The prophet Zechariah once had a vision of the Menorah, the seven-branched golden lampstand in the Temple.

On either side of the candelabrum, he saw two olive trees. Golden pipes provided oil from the trees to the seven lamps. And he heard God’s voice: “Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit says the LORD of hosts” (Zech. 4:2, 3,6). When the prophet inquired about the ‘two olive trees’ which he saw on the right and left side of the Menorah, the angel explained: “These are the ‘two anointed ones’ who stand by the Lord of the whole earth” (Zech. 4:14), thus indicating that the seven-branched candlestick was first and foremost a picture of Messiah, the Lord of all the earth.

Some may object: “Who can say that this refers to the Anointed, Jesus of Nazareth?”18 Certainly it does! Revelation 11:3 – 6 gives further light concerning the ‘two olive trees’ beside the Menorah: “These are my two witnesses, the two olive trees, the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.” Their deeds remind us of the works of Elijah, the prophet, and Moses, the lawgiver, who both appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration when Messiah’s face shone like the sun and his clothes become as white as the light (Mt. 17:2,3). Messiah is the one who fulfilled the Law and the Prophets (Mt. 5:17; 7:12). He said: “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life” (Jn. 8:12).

God calls Him: “MY SERVANT THE BRANCH” and “THE STONE WITH SEVEN EYES” (Zech. 3:8,9). “These seven are the eyes of the LORD which range throughout the whole earth. . . . For the eyes of the LORD range throughout the earth to strengthen those whose hearts are fully committed to him. (Zech. 4:10; 2 Chron. 16:9). The risen and glorified LORD called Himself: “The One who has the seven Spirits of God” (Rev. 3:1) and “Whose eyes are like a flame of fire” (Rev. 2:18; 1:14b, 4:5b). In penetrating power and perfect insight of the Holy Spirit, will Messiah one day judge the world and cleanse it from all evil forces. As “the One who has the seven Spirits of God” He shows divine omniscience, perfect insight into the affairs of His church: “All the churches will know that I am He who searches hearts and minds (i.e. the inmost thoughts, the conscience) and I will give each of you according to your works” (Rev. 2:23; cf. Ps. 7:8,9). Seven times He says: “Hear what the Spirit says unto the churches” (Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6,13, 22) and seven times He says: “I know …” (Rev. 2:2, 9, 13, 19; 3:1, 8, 15). The apostle saw Him standing in the midst of the throne of God as “a Lamb that had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth” (Rev. 5:6).

Two thousand years ago, when living among His people, He showed divine insight: “He knew all men, and needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man” (Jn. 2:24,25; cf. 1 Kings 8:39). “Jesus knew what they were thinking” (Lk. 5:22; 9:47; 11:17).

He knew their past life: To the woman in Samaria He said: “You have had five husbands; and the man you now have is not your husband” (Jn. 4:18, 29, 39).

He knew their present condition: To the apostle who was later renamed Peter, He said: “You are Simon the son of Jonah. You will be called Cephas (which translated means Peter)” (Jn. 1:42). Seeing Nathanael He said: “Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile” (Jn. 1:47). When Nathanael asked: “How do you know me?” Jesus replied: “”I saw you while you were still under the fig tree before Philip called you.” Then Nathanael declared, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.” (Jn. 1:48,49; cf. Ps. 139:2,3).

He also foresaw the future: “For Jesus knew from the beginning which of them did not believe, and who would betray him” (Jn. 6:64; 13:11). To Peter, He said: “When you were young you girdedst yourself and went where you wanted; but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish to go (indicating by what death he should glorify God)” (Jn. 21:18,19). Messiah had perfect knowledge of all happenings in the little village Bethphage (Mk. 11:1 – 6), as well as in the city Jerusalem (Lk. 22:10-13). Weeping, He prophesied the destruction of the city and the temple, saying: “The days will come upon you, when your enemies will build a palisaded mound against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side, and will lay you even with the ground and your children within you. And they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not recognize the time of your visitation” (Lk. 19:43, 44; cf. Dan. 9:26). Beholding the temple, He said: “Do you see all these things? Verily I say unto you, there will not be left here one stone upon another, that will not be thrown down” (Mt. 24:2). “Behold, your house is left unto you desolate; for I say unto you, you will not see me again until you say, Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD” (Mt. 23:38,39).19

6.2 His omnipotence

Who can deny the display of divine power in the life of Jesus? Almighty works confirmed His messianic ministry causing the people to confess: “Nothing like this has ever been seen in Israel” (Mt. 9:33; cf. Jn. 7:31; 9:32). We must admit that former prophets (e.g. Moses, Elijah and Elisha) had also been equipped by God to perform mighty signs and wonders, but the works of Jesus surpassed those of all others, causing Him to say: “If I had not done among them the works which no one else ever did, they would not be guilty of sin; but now have they seen these works and have hated both me and my Father” (Jn. 15:24). Jesus claimed to have done the works of His heavenly Father (Jn. 4:34; 5:36; 9:4; 10:25,32,37,38; 14:10b, 11) – Works which are ascribed to Jehovah and His Messiah in the Tenach. What kind of works were they?


Calming the wind and the sea (Mt. 8:26,27; cf. Ps. 89:9; 107:29).
Walking on the sea (Mt. 14:25; Jn. 6:19; cf. Job 9:8).
Feeding the multitude (Mt. 14:15-21; 15:32-38; cf. Ps. 145:15,16).
Granting large draughts of fish (Lk. 5:4-6; Jn. 21:6-11; cf. Ps.8:4-6,8).
Providing a coin in the mouth of a fish (Mt. 17:27; cf. Jonah 1:17, 2:10).
Turning water into wine (Jn. 2:7-9; cf.Jer. 13:12).
Causing the fig tree to wither (Mt. 21:19; cf Jer. 8.13).
And after His resurrection:
Becoming invisible (Lk. 24:31; cf. Judg. 6:21b).
Entering through closed doors (Jn. 20:19, 26; Lk. 24:36-43; cf. Jer. 23.24)
Ascending before their eyes (Lk. 24:51; Acts 1:9; cf. Judg. 13:20).


The blind received their sight (Mt. 9:27-30; 20:34; Mk. 8:23-25; Jn. 9:1,6,7; cf. Ps. 146:8).
The lame walked (Mk. 2:3,10-12; Acts 3:2,6-9; cf. lsa. 35:6a).
Lepers were cleansed (Mk. 1:40-42; Lk. 17:12-14; cf. Num. 12:10-15).
The deaf heard (Mk. 7:32-35; cf. Prov. 20:12).
The dumb could speak (Mt. 12:22; Lk. 11:14; cf. lsa. 35:6b).
The crippled were healed (Lk. 13:11-13; cf. Ps. 145:14).
A withered hand restored (Mt. 12:10,13; cf. 1 Kings 13:4-6).
The fever left (Lk. 4:38,39; Jn. 4:49-52).
Blood issue dried up (Mk. 5:25-34; cf. Lev. 15:25-30; 12:7).
Demon possessed were delivered (Mt. 17:15,18; Mk. 1:34,39; 5:2-15).


A daughter who had just died (Mk. 5:22-24,35-42; cf. 2 Kings 4:33-35).
The only son of a widow (Lk. 7:12-16; cf. 1 Kings 17:20-22).
Lazarus who had been dead four days (Jn. 11:38-44; cf. Ps. 68:20).

The raising of the dead indeed was a demonstration and evidence of His divine messianic power. Jesus said: “As the Father has life in himself, so he has given the Son to have life in himself. Marvel not at this, for the hour is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgement” (Jn. 5:26,28,29). And after His own resurrection, He said: “All power is given unto me in heaven and on earth” (Mt. 28:18). “I am the first and the last, and the living One. I was dead, and, behold, I am alive for evermore, and have the keys of death and of sheol” (Rev. 1:17,18).20

6.3 His omnipresence

This divine attribute the Lord laid aside for the duration of His earthly life. The Bible says: “Being in the form of God . . . he took upon himself the form of a servant and was made in the likeness of men” (Phil. 2:6,7). Thus, becoming our representative, He restricted Himself to be in one place at a time. But after His resurrection, He declared His omnipresence21: “Behold, I am with you always, even to the and of the age” (Mt. 28:20). “Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them” (Mt. 18:20; cf. Ex. 20:24b). How shall we understand this? It is through the Holy Spirit that He manifests His presence in every believer. He promised: “I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Comforter to be with you forever, the Spirit of Truth . . . He abides with you, and shall be in you. I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you” (Jn. 14:16-18). It is through obedience that we experience His abiding presence with us: “Whoever has my commandments and obeys them, he is the one who loves me. But he who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will manifest myself to him” (Jn. 14:21). “If anyone loves me, he will obey my teaching, and my Father will love him, and we will come and make our home with him” (Jn. 14:23).


There are mainly three divine prerogatives that need to be considered, namely: His sovereign command, His power to forgive sins and His authority to judge and rule the world.

7.1 His sovereign command

The life of Jesus demonstrates this remarkable phenomenon: He spoke words in divine authority. In fact, the eternal Word – the Creator and Sustainer of all things – had come to the world in human flesh and blood (Jn. 1:1-3; cf. Heb. 1:2,3). People were amazed at His powerful word: When He calmed the sea they said, “What manner of man is this! He commands even the wind and water, and they obey him” (Lk. 8:25). When He cast out demons with a word they said: “For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out” (Lk. 4:36; cf. Mt. 8:16). When Peter obeyed the Lord, saying: “at your word I will let down the nets” (Lk. 5:5,6) and he caught a large number of fish. Whenever people did what Messiah commanded, they experienced His sovereign power (Mt. 12:13; Lk. 17:14; Jn. 2:7-9; 4:50,51; 9:7; 21:6).

One day, a Roman centurion came to Jesus and asked him to heal his servant who was paralysed and in terrible suffering. Jesus wanted to come. But the centurion, recognizing Jesus’ authority, answered: “Lord . . . speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed. For I myself am a man under authority, with soldiers under me. I tell this one, ‘Go,’ and he goes; and that one, ‘Come,’ and he comes. I say to my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he does it” (Mt. 8:8,9). Jesus marvelled at the faith of the centurion and commanded: “Go, it shall be done for you as you have believed. And the servant was healed in that very hour” (Mt. 8:13).

This confirms that Messiah is indeed the LIVING WORD of God by whom the world was made (Col. 1:16,17). Mechilta (51 b) says: “When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the world – HE CREATED IT ONLY BY A WORD” (cf. Ps. 33:6-9; Heb. 11:3); Bereshit Rabbah (c. 1) comments: “God created the world through the Torah” and Midrash Tanchuma adds: “He took counsel together with the Torah.” In Pirke aboth VI, 10 we find: “The Torah says: The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old” (Prov. 8:22). As already mentioned, this LIVING TORAH is none else but Messiah “whose goings forth are from of old from everlasting” (Micah 5:2; cf. Prov. 8:23). He came to fulfil the Law and the prophets (Mt. 5:17)22. Only one who has learned obedience, understands his subjects and has authority to command. So Messiah, in perfect humility, gave the glorious example of obedience to the heavenly Father 23. He spoke with authority: “I am the way, the truth and the life; no man comes unto the Father except through me” (Jn. 14:6).

Moses commanded us to “walk in God’s ways” (Deut. 8:6; 10:1-2; 11:22; 19:9; 26:17; 28:9; 30:16). But how can we know His ways? Even Moses besought the LORD: “Show me now your ways that I may know you . . . show me your glory” (Ex. 33:13,18). God in His mercy answered: “My presence shall go with you” (Ex. 33:14). He showed him His glory: “You cannot see My face . . . you will see My back, but My face shall not be seen” (Ex. 33:20,23). “And the LORD passed by in front of Moses and proclaimed: The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abundant in mercy and truth” (Ex. 34:6).

Concerning Messiah it is written: “The word became flesh and dwelt among us and we have seen His glory as of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth” (Jn. 1:14). He taught the highest ethics: To love God above all and our neighbour as ourselves (Mt. 22:37-39); to love even our enemies (Mt. 5:44; cf. Prov. 25:21,22). And He condensed the whole Law into one golden rule: “All things whatsoever you would that man should do to you, do even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets” (Mt. 7:12). In the Sermon on the Mount, He referred six times to the law of Moses: “You have heard that it was said to them of old time” (Mt. 5:21,27,31,33,38,43), and in relation to it He declared: “But I say unto you . . .” “The people were astonished at His doctrine: For He taught as one having authority, and not as the scribes” (Mt. 7:29). “Never spoke man like this man!” (Jn. 7:46). No other prophet ever dared to speak like Jesus who declared: “Verily, verily, I say unto you . . . Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away” (Mt. 24:34,35). “In the past, God spoke to the fathers through the prophets, but at the end of these days He has spoken to us in the person of His Son”24 (Heb. 1:1,2; cf. Mt. 21:33-39). God says: “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him!” (Mt. 17;5) and warns us: “The man who will not hearken unto my words which He shall, speak in my name, I will require it of him” (Deut. 18:19; cf. Jn. 12:48-50). Indeed, Jesus is God’s last and final Word to lsrael25. His name is ‘THE WORD OF GOD’ (Rev. 19:13).

7.2  His power to forgive sin

One day, some friends of a paralysed man brought him to Jesus. The Lord, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic: “Man, your sins are forgiven you!” Some scribes and Pharisees began to reason: “Who is this man who speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God alone?” Of course, only God can forgive (Exodus 34:7a; Psalm 130:4); but they did not realize that in Messiah, “Immanuel,” God was present among His people. Jesus answered them: “That you may know that THE SON OF MAN26 HAS AUTHORITY ON EARTH TO FORGIVE SINS”. . . He said to the paralysed man: “I say to you, get up, take your couch and go home.” Immediately, he stood up before them, took the bed and departed to his house (Lk. 5:20-25; cf. 7:47-49). They were all amazed and glorified God, saying: “We have never seen anything like this!” (Mk. 2:12). Matthew says: “They praised God, who had given such authority to man” (9:8b)

How shall we interpret this? Is Messiah simply a man on earth authorized by God to forgive sins? Not at all! If that were the case then He himself would have had need of forgiveness, because all sons of Adam have the fallen nature ([rh rcy) of their ancestor: “There is not a righteous man on earth who does good and sins not. Every one of them is gone back, there is none that does good, not even one” (Eccl. 7:20; Ps. 53:3; cf. Job 15:14). “No man can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him, for too costly is the redemption of their soul, and must be given up forever” (Ps. 49:7,8). “The salvation is from the LORD” (Jonah 2:9; Ps. 3:8).27

Why, then, could Jesus say: “THE SON OF MAN HAS POWER ON EARTH TO FORGIVE SINS”? It is only through His uniqueness: as the Son of Man of divine origin. Not that a man could ever have perfected himself to God-likeness. But God, the Almighty, could take upon Him the likeness of man, to reconcile mankind unto Himself (Phil. 2:7; Heb. 2:14; 2 Cor. 5:19) – which He did: God became our Saviour.28

You may recall that on Yom Kippur, the Machsor (Jewish Prayer-book) thrice repeats God’s Word: “I, even I, am He who blots out your transgressions, for mine own sake, and remembers your sins no more” (Is. 43:25). Indeed, atonement is only from God, and that in the way which He determined. He provided FORGIVENESS THROUGH THE VICARIOUS SACRIFICE – the Kapparah (Lev. 4:20,26, 31,35; 5:10,13,16,18; 6:7; 19:22). God says: “The soul of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that makes an atonement for the soul” (Lev. 17:11; cf. Heb. 9:22). This is also emphasized by the following rabbinical interpretations. Talmud Zebahim (6a) and Yoma (5a) says: “Surely atonement can only be made with the blood, as it says: ‘For it is the blood that makes atonement by reason of the life’ (Lev. 17:11).

Rabbi Horowitz (1555 -1628) writes in his famous work Shene Luchoth Haberith (page 242a): “He (Messiah) will give Himself and His life over unto death, and His blood will atone for His people.”

How did this happen? The prophet Isaiah says: “The LORD has laid on him (on Messiah) the iniquity of us all . . . He was led like a lamb to the slaughter . . . for the transgression of my people was he stricken . . . the LORD makes his soul an offering for sin . . . He poured out his soul unto death and was numbered with the transgressors; and he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors” (Isaiah 53:6,7,8,10,12)29. In great agony on the cross He prayed: “FATHER, FORGIVE THEM, FOR THEY DO NOT KNOW WHAT THEY ARE DOING” (Lk. 23:34). 30

Thus the LORD established the New Covenant which He had promised through the prophet Jeremiah: “Behold, the days come, says the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah … for I will forgive their iniquity and will remember their sin no more” (Jer. 31:31- 34).31 This New Covenant came into force on the 14th of Nisan when the Passover lambs were slaughtered (Heb. 9:16,17). Then Messiah, our Paschal lamb, was sacrificed for us (1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Pet. 1:18,19). They pierced His hands, His feet and His side (Jn. 19:17, 18, 34; 20:20; Lk. 24:39; cf. Ps. 22:16)32. On the preceding Seder night, Jesus lifted the ‘Cup of Redemption,’ saying: “This is my blood of the new covenant which is shed for many for the remission of sins” (Mt. 26:28). The apostle John states that by Messiah’s death, Zechariah’s prophecy was fulfilled which says: “They shall look on Him whom they pierced” (Jn. 19:37; cf. Zech. 12:10)33. The prophet compares the lamentation over the wounds of Messiah with the mourning over the death of the firstborn at the Passover in Egypt (Exodus 12:29, 30) and with the mourning over the death of the great king of Judah, Josiah, shortly after the greatest Passover in the time of the kings (2 Chron. 35:18, 22-25). For Messiah is called by God: “My firstborn, the highest of the kings of the earth” (Psalm 89:27).

7.3  His authority to judge and rule the world

Every believer in Messiah knows that one day God will judge and rule the nations: “The LORD is our Judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is our king, He will save us” (Is. 33:22).

It was God’s plan from the beginning that Israel should be a theocracy. The LORD Himself wanted to rule His people. However, they rejected the invisible God and asked for a visible earthly king: “Make us a king to judge us like all the nations.” So the LORD said to Samuel: “They have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them34. As they have done from the day that I brought them up out of Egypt until this day, they have forsaken Me and served other gods” (1 Sam 8:5-8). God foresaw this tragic event of Israel’s history. He had already warned them through Moses: “When you come into the land which the LORD your God gives you and have taken possession of it . . . and you say: ‘Let us set a king over us like all the nations around us,’ then you shall only appoint him king over you, whom the LORD your God will choose” (Deut. 17:14,15).

The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (pg. 385) says: “Deut. 17:18-20 . . . is based on the ideal of the future king of the house of David.” Of course, Messiah is King whom God has chosen.35 The everlasting kingdom was promised to the house of David (Ps. 89:3, 4, 29, 36)36. It is through Messiah that the whole world will come under God’s sovereignty. For He is “God’s Son” (1 Chron. 17:13; cf. Ps. 89:27), “God with us” (Is. 7:13,14), “The mighty God” (Is. 9:6), “Jehovah” (Jer. 23:6). Concerning Him it is written: “YOUR THRONE, O GOD, will last forever and ever; a sceptre of justice will be the sceptre of your kingdom. You love righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your companions” (Ps. 45:6,7; cf. Heb. 1:8,9).37

Now, how can we be sure that Jesus of Nazareth is indeed the king of Israel, the coming judge and ruler of the world? As previously mentioned, even before His conception the angel Gabriel announced to His mother that “THE LORD GOD WILL GIVE HIM THE THRONE OF HIS FATHER DAVID AND HE WILL REIGN OVER THE HOUSE OF JACOB FOREVER” (Lk. 1:32,33). At His birth, wise men from the east enquired: “Where is the one who is born KING OF THE JEWS? For we saw his star in the east and have come to worship him” (Mt. 2:2,11). And at His death there was written over the cross: “JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS” (Jn. 19:19). Jesus began His public ministry with a royal proclamation: “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Mt. 4:17). The helpless implored Him: “Lord, Son of David, have mercy on us” (Mt. 9:27; 15:22; 20:30,31). And at His triumphant entrance to Jerusalem, the crowds received Him with royal acclamation: “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!” (Mt. 21:9,15b). Everyone – including the spiritual leaders of Israel – knew that He was of royal descent. This could be verified. For the genealogical records had been preserved in the Temple and were easily accessible to all the people.38

Some will object: “If Jesus is the judge and king – why did He not bring peace to this troubled world? Did not the prophet say: ‘Of peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with judgement and with righteousness, from henceforth even forever’ (Is. 9:7)?” While these are admittedly weighty questions, one thing is certain: Before Messiah can establish righteousness and peace on earth, the question of sin has to be dealt with. At His first appearance “God sent not his Son into the world that he may judge the world, but that the world may be saved through him” (Jn. 3:17). First, He took the judgement of our sins upon Himself: “He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed” (Is. 53:5). Rabbi Elija de Vidas (16th Century) says: “The meaning of ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities’ is, that since the Messiah bears our iniquities which produce the effect of His being bruised, it follows that whoever will not admit that Messiah thus suffers for our iniquities must endure and suffer for them himself.”

“How shall we escape if we ignore such a great salvation?” (Heb. 2:3) when the LORD – our judge, lawgiver and king – suffered in our stead that we might be saved (Is. 33:22). The Bible says: “Whoever believes on Him will not come into judgement” (Jn. 5:24). But all who refuse His pardon will one day meet Him as their judge and king.

When He returns, Messiah will judge and rule the world. He said: “the Father . . . has entrusted all judgement to the Son. He has given him authority to execute judgement because he is the Son of man” (Jn. 5:22, 27). This was later announced by the apostles. Peter proclaimed: “He (Jesus) commanded us to preach to the people that He is the one whom God appointed as judge of the living and the dead” (Acts 10:42). Paul wrote: “The Lord Jesus Messiah will judge the living and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom” (2 Tim. 4:1). The apostle John had a vision of Messiah’s coming: “I saw the heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and the one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and He judges and makes war in righteousness. Out of his mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it he might smite the nations. He will rule them with an iron sceptre. He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty. On his garment and on his thigh he has a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS” (Rev. 19:11,15,16; 17:14; cf. lsa. 11:4; 30:27,28; 2 Thess. 2:8). His dominion stretches to the ends of the earth39: “Sing aloud and rejoice, daughter of Zion; for behold, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of you, says the LORD (Jehovah). And many nations will join themselves to the LORD in that day and will become my people. I will dwell in the midst of you and you will know that the LORD (Jehovah) of hosts has sent me to you” (Zech. 2:10,11; cf. lsa. 2:3,4; 48:16). “And the LORD (Jehovah)40 will be king over the whole earth. On that day there will be one LORD, and his name one” (Zech. 14:9).


In consideration of Messiah’s nature, one cannot use the word “divine” in human connotation (i.e. referring to excellency, talent or beauty); but has to see Him in the light of God’s Word which declares: “In Him lives all the fulness of the Deity in bodily form” (Col. 2:9). Many find it hard to believe that Messiah is indeed “VERY GOD OF VERY GOD” conceived through the Holy Spirit41. Therefore, God has given us irrefutable proof of Messiah’s divine nature through His resurrection: “He promised the good news before through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures, concerning his Son, who came of the seed of David according to the flesh42, and was EVIDENCED TO BE THE SON OF GOD WITH POWER, ACCORDING TO THE SPIRIT OF HOLINESS, BY THE RESURRECTION FROM THE DEAD” (Romans 1:2-4).

Where do we find Messiah’s resurrection prophesied in the Tenach? It was foreshadowed when Abraham went to sacrifice his son, Isaac, on Mount Moriah. On the third day he said to his servants: “I and the boy will go over there to worship, and we will come back to you!” (Gen. 22:5; cf. Heb. 11:19). We find it also typified in the life of the prophet Jonah who was three days and three nights in the belly of the fish and then brought back to life (Jonah 1:17; 2:10; Mt. 12:40). Furthermore, the prophet Isaiah foretold that Messiah would die for His people and live again: “When the LORD makes his soul an offering for sin, he will see his seed and prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD will prosper in his hand” (Is. 53:10; cf. Ps. 22:15-17, 21-24). In addition to this, Jesus Himself foretold His resurrection at different times: “The Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the scribes, and they will condemn him to death; and they will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified, and the third day he will rise again” (Mt. 20:18,19; cf. 16:21; 17:9,22,23; 26:32; 27:63).43

Today, we are more privileged than the people in the time of Jesus. For besides the prophecy of the Tenach, we have the testimony of the New Testament:

(1) The removed tombstone – Mt. 28:2; Mk. 16:4.
(2) The broken seal – Mt. 27:62-66.
(3) The swooning guards – Mt. 28:4, 11-15.
(4) The proclamation of angels – Lk. 24:4-7.
(5) The empty tomb – Mt. 28:6.
(6) The grave-clothes – Jn. 19:40; 20:5-8.
(7) The appearances of Jesus – 1 Cor. 15:5-8.44
(8) The witnesses of the resurrection – Acts 1:22; 2:32; 3:15; 4:2,10,33; 5:30; 10:40,41; 13:30,31 etc.

Some will argue: “Jesus was just another Jewish martyr as those who died in the holocaust, and even if He rose from the dead – why should His resurrection be different from others which are recorded in the Bible?”45 – which objections raise the vital question: Is Messiah really of divine nature? The fact is, that those who were raised in biblical times, later died again – because they had retained their fallen Adamic nature (Gen. 3:l9; Eccl. 7:20; Rom. 5:12)46. Whereas Messiah who is “GOD MANIFESTED IN THE FLESH” (1 Tim. 3:16) could never die again. He died once for all (Jn. 11:50; 1 Tim. 2:5,6; Heb. 2:9). 47

The fact that God would raise Him from the dead, never to decay, had been prophesied by King David: “You will not leave my soul in the grave, nor will you give your Holy One to see corruption. You have made known to me the paths of life; in your presence is fullness of joy” (Psalm 16:10,11).

David himself died, was buried and decayed. One can see his tomb in Jerusalem on Mount Zion, He realized, however, that it was his descendant, the Messiah, who God had promised would live forever:
“He asked you for life and you gave it to him – length of days, forever and ever. You have made him most blessed for over and have filled him with the joy of your presence” (Psalm 21:4,6). 48

Truly, in Jesus we see THE DIVINE NATURE AND EVERLASTING LIFE (1 Jn. 1:2). “He has destroyed death and brought LIFE AND IMMORTALITY to light” (2 Tim. 1:10). For it was impossible that death should hold THE PRINCE OF LIFE (Acts 2:24; 3:15). God reversed the verdict of the human court and demonstrated through the resurrection, that Jesus is indeed His only-begotten Son, who entered the human race through the virgin birth and lives forever IN THE POWER OF AN INDESTRUCTIBLE LIFE (Heb. 7:16) – thus, giving us a living hope and certainty that there is indeed a resurrection to everlasting life (1 Pet. 1:3; 1 Cor. 15:20-23). 49 “We were redeemed not with corruptible things, as silver or gold – but with the (INCORRUPTIBLE) PRECIOUS BLOOD OF MESSIAH, a lamb without blemish or defect” (1 Pet. 1:18,19; cf. Rev. 5:9,13). What a glorious truth:

“The God of peace brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep through THE BLOOD OF THE EVERLASTING COVENANT” (Heb. 13:20).


Having thus established through the Holy Scriptures that Messiah Jesus is “the true God and eternal life” (1 Jn. 5:20), that He fulfilled the Torah (Isa. 26:12; Heb. 10:5-10), gave Himself as our Kapparah (Isa. 53:6; 1 Jn. 1:7,9; 2:2), rose from the dead (Jn. 10:17,18) and is coming to judge the world (Acts 17:31), – let us now consider the fact that HE IS EXALTED at God’s right hand50, for it is written:

“Behold, my servant shall act wisely, he shall be EXALTED AND LIFTED UP, AND SHALL BE VERY HIGH. Just as many were appalled at him – his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men – so shall he startle many nations; kings shall shut their mouth because of him. For that which had not been told them shall they see, and that which they had not heard shall they understand” (Isa. 52:13-15).51

This wonderful truth of Messiah’s exaltation, is found also in Rabbinical interpretations. Midrash Tanchuma says: “He was more exalted than Abraham, more extolled than Moses, higher than the archangels.” And Rabbi Abraham Shalom (before 1492) writes in his work ‘Neve Shalom’: “The King Messiah shall be extolled above Abraham, be high above Moses.”

All this happened because Messiah who was equal with God was willing to be humbled for a period of time by taking to himself human flesh (unlike Satan who as a created Angel tried to exalt himself by grasping at equality with God – lsa. 14:12-15; Ezek. 28:14-17). Jesus taught that “whoever humbles himself shall be exalted” and “whoever loses his life for my sake shall find it’ (Mt. 23:12; 10:39). He set the perfect example by giving Himself for us, as it is written:

“He humbled himself and became obedient unto death – even death on the cross! Therefore GOD HIGHLY EXALTED HIM and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that JESUS MESSIAH IS LORD, to the glory of God the Father.” (Phil. 2:8-11).

This is what the LORD spoke through the prophet Isaiah:
“By myself have I sworn, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not be revoked: Before me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. Only in the LORD, shall one say, have I righteousness and strength. To him shall men come; and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed. In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory” (Isa. 45:23-25).

Dear reader, have you put your trust in Him? (Ps. 2:12; Prov. 30:4,5). Have you found in Messiah – whose name is ‘Jehovah our Righteousness’ (Jer. 23:6) – your righteousness, strength, justification and glory?

When father Jacob heard; “Joseph is yet alive, and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt!” his heart fainted, for he believed them not. Yet when he discovered the truth, we read: “The spirit of Jacob their father revived” (Gen. 45:26,27).

The apostle Thomas reacted similarly when his fellow-disciples told him: “Jesus is risen indeed, we have seen the LORD!” He would not believe it and declared: “Unless I see the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe it.” A week later, Jesus appeared again in their midst – though the doors were locked. And the LORD addressed Thomas, using the same words which he had spoken to the other disciples: “Thomas, put your finger here: see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe.” Suddenly, realizing that the living and invisible LORD had heard his words of unbelief he broke down, confessing: “MY LORD AND MY GOD!” (Jn. 20:24-28).52

When you confess with your mouth, “JESUS IS LORD,” and believe in your heart, “GOD RAISED HIM FROM THE DEAD,” you will be saved. Romans 10:9

For a deeper understanding of the subject, the reader is invited to look up all Bible references. – The following versions have been consulted: (1) The translation of the Jewish Publication Society; (2) The King James Version; (3) The American Revised Version; (4) The translation by J.N. Darby; (5) The New International Version. – Emphasis in italics or capital letters is given by the author.

 For additional references to the tri-unity of the Godhead and the divinity of Messiah see “The Great Mystery or How can three be one?” By Rabbi Tzvi Nassi published by Yanetz Ltd. P O Box 151, Jerusalem.


  1. There was already in the fourth century a dogmatic dispute between Arius, a presbyter of Alexandria (died 336) who taught that Christ was not divine but God’s creation, and Athanasius, the Bishop of Alexandria (295 -373) who professed the consubstantiality of God the Father and the Son. The Council of Nicea (325) verified Bishop Athanasius’ doctrine concerning the divinity of the Messiah.
  2. From the book “THE MESSIAHSHIP OF JESUS”, compiled by Dr Arthur W. Kac, Moody Press, Chicago – Used by permission.
  3. “Come and see the mystery of the word Jehovah: There are three degrees, each degree is by itself alone, yet they are One, and joined together in one, and are not divided from each other” (Sohar lll, 65). – The Book of Creation, (pg. 89) says: “There are Three, but each exists by Himself”. – The Tenach speaks of “THE FATHER GOD” (Deut. 32:6; Isa. 63:16; 64:8; Jer. 3:4,19; Ps. 68:5; 89:26; Mal. 1:6; 2:10), of “THE SON OF GOD” (1 Chron. 17:11-14; Ps. 2:7,12; 89:27; Prov. 30:4) and of “THE SPIRIT OF GOD” (Gen. 1:2; 6:3; Ps. 51:11; 139:7; lsa. 11:2; 61:1; 63:10,11; Ezek. 36:27 etc.). – The New Testament too refers to these three divine personalities constituting the Supreme Being (Matt. 28:1 9; 2 Cor. 13:1 4).
  4. Yahwe is probably the more correct sound picture of the inexpressible name of God YHWH, whose consonants received in the Bible the vocalisation of Adonai (= LORD) out of which came the reading JEHOVAH.
  5. In lsa. 7:14, we find the Hebrew word “almah” which strictly speaking, means “a young woman who is unmarried”. Why is there not written “betulah” which would be the more correct word for virgin? It is because the word “betulah” which is used 38 times in the Tenach, does not always refer to an untouched person (cf. Joel 1:8), whereas the word “almah” which appears 7 times, is always used for a virgin. The New Testament quotation is taken from the Septuagint which is the translation from Hebrew into Greek vernacular (274 BC) The fact that the 72 translators chose the Greek word “parthenos” (B”Dhg<@l,which means virgin); indicates that they understood the true meaning of the original text. In Gen. 3:15 Messiah is called “The Seed of the Woman”. Midrash Rabbah says (on Gen. 4:1); “Eve had respect to that Seed which is coming from another place. And Who is this? This is the Messiah, the King.” God made it very clear that it is not given to man to procreate the Messiah. The Saviour comes from God and is conceived through the Holy Spirit.
  6. See also Midrash Thillim 21:2 and R. Moses Alshech on lsa. 40:1,2.. The holy name of God, pronounced Yahwe, is found in Exodus 3:14b – “I AM (YHWH) has sent me unto you.” This throws light on God’s Self-revelation: “I AM WHO I AM” (Ex. 3:14a). The name indicates that the LORD is always the same – in past, present and future (Mal. 3:6). This is also said of the Messiah (Heb. 13:8; Rev. 1:17,18). Significant are His Self-revelations: “I AM the bread of life” (John 6:35,48,51); “I AM the light of the world” (John 8:12; 9:5); “I AM the door” (John 10:7,9); “I AM the way, the truth and the life” (John 14:6); “I AM the resurrection” (John 11:25); “I AM the good shepherd” (John 10:11,14); “I AM the true vine” (John 15:1,5); “I AM the Son of God” (John 10:36); “I AM from above” (John 8:23); “I AM” (John 8:24,58; 13:19; 18:5,6,8). – Many references to Jehovah in the Tenach are fulfilled in the New Testament in Messiah Jesus; in these references the text of the Septuagint is used in which the word “JEHOVAH” is translated as “KYRIOS” which means LORD: lsa. 40:3-5 – Luke 3:4-6; Isa. 45:22-25 – Phil. 2:10, 11; Joel 2:32 – Rom. 10:9-13; Isa.8:13,14 – 1 Pet. 3:15; Isa. 41:4; 44:6; 48:12 – Rev. 1:17; 2:8; 22:13; Isa. 40:10; 62:11 – Rev. 22:12; Jer. 17:1O – Rev. 2:23, Deut. 10:17 – Rev. 19:16; Zech. 14:3 -5 – Jude 14; Acts 1:11, 12; Mal. 3:1 – Matt. 11:7-10.
  7. Targum Palestine (7th century) says: “Out of you Bethlehem shall Messiah go forth before Me to exercise dominion over Israel.” According to statistics of the Israeli embassy in Bonn, West Germany: No Jews are amongst the 31 000 present inhabitants of Bethlehem. Jews are only living in surrounding towns like Ephratah and Tekoa (Engl. Ed. IDEA, December 23rd, 1987).
  8. “God sent forth His Son into the world” (cf. John 3:17; Rom. 8:3; Gal. 4:4; 1 John 4:9,14) implies that He held that title prior to His mission. However, some object: “The name ‘Son of God’ is indeed used, when speaking of Him previous to His having assumed human nature, but so are the names ‘Jesus’ and ‘Christ’ which belong to His humanity.” Admittedly, but the case is altered when we consider that the names ‘Christ Jesus’ (meaning ‘Anointed Saviour’) relate to His office, whereas the name ‘Son of God’ refers to His divine nature. Pesiqta Rabbati 36 comments (on Gen. 1:4); ” ‘And God saw the light, that it was good’. That teaches us that the Holy One looked on the Messiah and His work before the creation of the world.” Abodath Hakkodesh (c. 43): “The Messiah exists as a Living One in the Paradise till today.”
  9. In Genesis 3:22 God says: “Behold, the man is become as one of us.” – When the prophet Ezekiel had a revelation of God’s glory he saw “upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.” The following verse says: “And I saw that from what appeared to be His waist up He looked like glowing brass, as if full of fire, and from His waist down He looked like fire, and brightness surrounded Him” (Ezek. 1:26,27). Rashi, the most authoritative rabbinic commentator of the Bible observes: “One is not allowed to reflect on this verse;” to which the Hebrew Christian Pastor Richard Wurmbrand objects: “Why not? We can easily guess. It is because the description indicates clearly that the God whom Ezekiel saw in his vision had the body of a glorified man. It confirms the Christian doctrine of the incarnation of God’s Son in the man Jesus.” (From the book “REACHING TOWARD THE HEIGHTS”, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506, USA – used by permission.)
  10. Messiah, “The Star out of Jacob” (Num. 24:17; Rev. 22:16), is not only the Son of David (Zemach David), as God said: “I will raise unto David a righteous Branch” (Jer. 23:5). He is also the Son of God (Zemach Adonai), as it is written: In that day shall the Branch of Jehovah be beautiful and glorious” (Isa. 4:2).  This is verified by rabbinical interpretations (on Isaiah 4:2); Targum Jonathan (4th Century) paraphrases the ‘Branch of Jehovah’ as the ‘Messiah of God’, and Rabbi David Kimchi (1160 – 1235) says: “The explanation of the ‘Branch of Jehovah’ is the Messiah Ben David, as it is written: ‘Behold, I will raise unto David a righteous Branch’ (Jer. 23:5).
  11. Many will say: “Are we not all the sons of God?” They do not realize that God is Spirit and has no grandchildren. Although from the outset, man was made to be a son of God; he lost his innocence on the day when he opened himself to satanic influence. The Bible says: “All have sinned and came short of the glory of God” (Rom. 3:23; cf. 5:12). We need to be regenerated and renewed by God’s Spirit (Tit. 3:5). Jesus said: “That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit Marvel not that I say to you, You must be born again” (John 3:6, 7; 1:12, 13; 1 Pet. 1:23). There can be no mistake: Every man is either “a child of God” or “a child of the devil” (1 John 3:10; Matt. 13:38; John 8:42, 44; Gen. 3:15).
  12. Later, unfortunately, some raised objections: Kohelet Rabbah 70a says: “For it is said of Him: “Jehovah, our God, Jehovah is One’ and not two, for He has none united with Him in His world, neither a son, nor a brother.” – From this derived the objections in the Qur’an (Sure 4:171; 19:35; 112:3). On the frieze surrounding the Dome of the Rock (Mosque of Omar) is written in Arabic: “There is no Deity but Allah! Blessed be Allah, who neither has begotten a son nor has he a companion in his government, nor a protector for lack of power. Praise his greatness . . .” In contrast, God’s word warns us: “Who is a liar, but he who denies that Jesus is the Messiah (the Christ)? He is the antichrist, who denies the Father and the Son. Whoever denies the Son, the same has not the Father; but who acknowledges the Son has the Father also” (1 John 2:22, 23).
  13. A few days before, Jesus asked the Pharisees: “What do you think about Messiah? Whose son is He?” They answered, “The Son of David.” Jesus said, “How then does David in Spirit call him Lord, saying: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool’ (Ps. 110:1)? If David then calls him ‘Lord’, how is he his son?” (Matt. 22:41-45). Indeed, David spoke prophetically of the Messiah who would be higher than man and of divine nature. Many scholars regard this prediction as Messianic. Midrash Rabbah comments (on Gen. 18:1): “In future God will let Messiah sit at His right hand, as it is written (Ps. 110:1): ‘The Lord says unto my lord, Sit at my right hand’. ” See also Mark 16:19; Acts 2:34-36; Heb. 1:3,13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; Eph. 1:20-22; 1 Pet. 3:22.
  14. Gen. 16:7,13; 22:11,12; 31:11,13; 32:24,30; 48:15,16a; Ex. 3:2,4; 13:21 and 14:19; 23:20,21; Judg. 6:12,14,16; 13:3,6,9, 10,22.
  15. None ever know God the Father in such intimate communion as Jesus, because: “No man has ever seen God at any time; but God the Only-Begotten, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared Him” (i.e. brought Him out, made Him known; John 1:18; cf. 7:29; 8:16, 29; 10:15a; 16:32b).
  16. The Hebrew Christian scholar David Baron says: “The idea of nearest one (or Fellow) involves not only similarity in vocation, but community of physical or spiritual descent, according to which he whom God calls His neighbour cannot be mere man, but can only be one who participates in the Divine nature, or is essentially Divine. The Shepherd of Jehovah, whom the sword is to smite, is therefore no other than the Messiah, who is also identified with Jehovah in chap. 12:10; or the Good Shepherd, who says of Himself, ‘I and My Father are one’ (John 10:30).” (From the book ‘THE VISIONS AND PROPHECIES OF ZECHARIAH’, by David Baron, published by Marshall, Morgan and Scott, used by permission).
  17. Targum Jonathan (on Isaiah 11:1): “Messiah, who is of the sons of the sons of lsai.”
  18. Nazareth means “THE GREEN BRANCH”. In the Tenach Messiah is called not only “THE BRANCH” (=Zemach, lsa. 4:2; Jer. 23:5; Zech. 3:8; 6:12) but also “THE GREEN BRANCH” (= Netzer, – “There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a BRANCH shall grow out of his roots” – lsa. 11:1). In another place He is called “A TENDER BRANCH” (= Yoneq – “He grew up before him as A TENDER PLANT and a root out of a dry ground … He was despised and rejected of men” – lsa. 53:2,3). The name NAZARETH was in the first century regarded with contempt: “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?” (Jn. 1:46). There Messiah grew up (Lk. 4:16) and received therefore the name “THE NAZARENE” or “JESUS OF NAZARETH” (Matt. 2:23; Acts 2:22; 10:37, 38; 22:6 – 8; 26:9).
  19. In the Gospels we see only one limitation of Messiah’s knowledge: During His earthly ministry as ‘The son of Man’ He voluntarily subordinated Himself to His Father concerning the time of His return. He said: “No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father” (Mk.. 13:32; cf. Acts 1:7). Thus, it pleased God that the time of Messiah’s return should be shrouded in mystery with the purpose that believers be always prepared for His glorious appearance.
  20. Talmud Sanhedrin (113a) says: “God gives to the Messiah the key for the resurrection of the dead.” – In Midrash Mishle (67) Messiah is called Yinnon, because He will raise the dead. Rabbi Levi ben Gershon (1288-1344) mentions (on Deut. 34:10) that particularly the resurrection of the dead will be the means by which Messiah brings the people to the worship of God.
  21. What the Bible says about the Word of God (Deut. 30:11-14) and of the omnipresent Spirit of God (Ps. 139:7-10) is also spoken of the personified Word, Messiah, the LORD (Rom. 10:6-10).
  22. Targum Jonathan (on lsa. 9:6): “He (Messiah) takes the Torah upon Himself to fulfil it.” Midrash Thillim (on Ps. 2:7): “. . . Messiah occupies Himself with Torah.” Talmud Sanhedrin (93b): “Messiah is like a mill full of Mizvoth.”
  23. In perfect obedience: Jn. 4:34; 5:30; 6:38; 8:29; 12:50; Mt. 26:39,42,44. In utter dependence: Jn. 5:19,30a; 7:16,17,28; 8:28; 12:49; 14:10. Many bore witness to His immaculate character: Jn. 19:4,6; Mt. 27:19,24; Lk. 23:47; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22; 1 Jn. 3:5; Mt. 27:3,4; 1 Jn. 6:9-11; Mt. 3:17; 17:5.
  24. The absence of the article in the original text (lit. ‘in Son’) is of importance. God, who had formerly spoken through the prophets using them as His mouthpiece, is here clearly distinct. ‘in Son’ emphasizes that it is God Himself who speaks, not by another but in the divine Person of the Son.
  25. From Abraham till now nearly 4000 years have passed. In the middle of that period stands Messiah as the great watershed in Jewish history. He is “the Prophet like unto Moses” (Deut. 18:15-19), God’s last and earnest appeal to His people. After Him no other prophet arose out of Israel and the people went into a long and terrible exile.
  26. Jesus called Himself preferably “THE SON OF MAN” (78 times in the gospels). He claimed this Messianic title for Himself (Dan. 7:13; Mk. 14:62). And rightly so! For as the righteous Branch of David, “Jehoyah our Righteousness” (Jer. 23:5,6), HE IS THE PERFECT SON OF MAN (Psalm 45:2). Before His incarnation we see in the Tenach (Old Testament) on various occasions THE ANGEL OF THE LORD APPEARING AS A MAN (Gen. 32:24,30; Judg. 6:12,14,16; 13:3,6,9,10,22). The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia says concerning the Angel of Jahwe (page 304): “. . . The visit to Abraham of three divine beings, one of them WAS ACTUALLY JAHWE HIMSELF.” (cf. Gen. 18:13, 17,20,26). God warned Israel not to grieve the Angel who went before them to keep them in the way: “Be careful in his presence and harken unto his voice: DO NOT PROVOKE HIM, FOR HE WILL NOT FORGIVE YOUR TRANSGRESSIONS; for my name is in him” (Ex. 23:21; cf. Jn. 17:6,26). Rabbi Bechai (1260 -1340) comments: “This Angel is one of the Inherent Ones, according to the opinion of Tanchuma. ‘For He will not pardon your transgressions.’ Because He belongs to that class of Beings which cannot sin. He is Metatron, the Prince of His (God’s) countenance . . . Mine Angel, Who is My Beloved One, through Whom I am known in the world, and concerning Whom it is written (Ex. 33:14): ‘My presence shall go with you.'” In Old Testament times He assumed the form of man merely for purpose of communication. Whereas now He had come into the flesh as ‘THE SON OF MAN’ (Jn. 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16), to plead our cause (Is. 38:14-17), to be our surety (Ps. 119:122), to supply the ransom (Job 33:23,24; Mk. 10:45), to die in our stead (Is. 53:8; Jn. 11:49-52), to take away our sin (Heb. 9:26; 1 Jn. 3:5) and to establish the New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34; Mt. 26:28; Heb. 9:15-17).
  27. Moses once prayed in the spirit and attitude of Messiah: “IF YOU WILL FORGIVE THEIR SIN … but if not, blot me, I pray you, out of your book which you have written” (Ex. 32:32). Yet, his proposed atoning sacrifice was not acceptable before God because he was not without sin (Ex. 2:12; Num. 20:7-12). Only God Himself could provide the ransom for our salvation. Interesting is Rabbi Nachmanides’ (1194 -1268) interpretation (on Ex. 32:32): According to my opinion Moses said, “And now, if you will forgive their sin through your mercy . . . but if not, blot me out instead of them from the book of life and I will suffer their punishment as it is written in Isaiah 53:5.” (The reader may notice that Isaiah 53 is referring to the suffering Messiah).
  28. The name YESHUA(H) – Latin = JESUS – means SAVIOUR (or SALVATION). His name was announced before his birth: “You shall call his name Jesus. . . for he shall save his people from their sins” (Mt. 1:21). Salvation is personified in the Messiah (Zech. 9:9; Is. 49:6; 52:10; 62:11). In Him “God became our salvation” (Ps. 118:14,21,22; lsa. 12:2,3; 63:8, 9; Acts 4:12).
  29. Most of the ancient Jewish commentators (of the Targum, the Talmud, the Midrash and the Sohar) agree that Isaiah 52:13 – 53:12 refers to the suffering Messiah. For the prophet is speaking of a single person offering his life as an atoning sacrifice for his people. He is called: a tender plant, a root, a man of sorrow, a lamb, a sheep, an offering for sin, my righteous Servant. “He was cut off out of the land of the living, for the transgression of my people was he stricken.”
  30. Rabbi Chil Slostowski (Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary in Lodz, Poland, and later secretary to Chief Rabbi T. Cook, Jerusalem) wrote: “I was deeply impressed by Luke 23:34, ‘Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.’ Compare this utterance with that of Jeremiah when he was oppressed. Jeremiah was enraged and cursed his persecutors. Jesus, on the other hand, even when nailed to the Cross, had nothing but forgiveness, mercy, sympathy and prayer for His persecutors. What a difference! How much greater was he than the prophets were!” (From ‘Rabbi’s meet Jesus the Messiah’ – published by Messianic Good News).
  31. For further details see article  “The New Covenant with Israel” published by Messianic Good News
  32. The textual reading of most present Hebrew manuscripts is: “Like a lion (yrak ) my hands and my feet.” But the Septuagint (LXX), the work of 72 Hebrew scholars who translated the Tenach into Greek vernacular (274 B.C.), affords the reading: “They pierced my hands and my feet.” There seems no shadow of a doubt that this is the genuine reading of the original Hebrew text since the writers of the New Testament also apply Psalm 22 to the crucifixion of Messiah (Mt. 27:35-46; Jn. 19:23, 24). Pesiqta Rabbati 36 (on lsa. 60) says: “God made an agreement with Him (the Messiah) and said unto Him: ‘THOSE, WHOSE SINS WILL BE FORGIVEN FOR YOUR SAKE, will span You into an iron yoke . . . and because of their sins will Your tongue cleave to Your jaws, as it says (Psalm 22:15): My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaves to my jaws; and You have brought me into the dust of death.”
  33. Talmud Sukkah (52a) says: “It is well according to him who explains that the cause (of the mourning) is the slaying of Messiah Ben Yosef, since that well agrees with the Scripture verse: ‘And they shall look upon Me, whom they have pierced: and shall mourn for Him, as one mourns for his only son.’” Rabbi Moses Alshech (1508-1600) comments: “‘They shall look unto Me,’ for they shall lift up their eyes unto Me in perfect repentance, when they see him whom they have pierced, that is Messiah, the son of Joseph; for our Rabbis, of blessed memory, have said that he will take upon himself all the guilt of Israel, and shall then be slain in the war to make atonement in such manner that it shall be accounted as if Israel had pierced him, for on account of their sin he has died, and, therefore, in order that it may be reckoned to them as a perfect atonement, they will repent and look to the blessed One, saying that there is none beside Him to forgive those that mourn on account of Him who died for their sin: this is the meaning of ‘They shall look upon Me.’”
  34. Likewise was Messiah, the Son of God, first rejected, as it is written: “He was despised and rejected of man” (Is. 53:3; cf. Ps. 118:22,23). This was already foreshadowed in the life of Joseph whom his brethren rejected, saying: “Do you intend to reign over us? Will you indeed rule us?” (Gen. 37:8). We see it also in the life of Moses who was first pushed aside by his people: “Who made you ruler and judge over us?” (Ex. 2:14). But later “he was sent by God to be their ruler and deliverer” (Acts 7:35). The same happened to David when Absalom revolted and drove him from the throne (2 Sam. 15 and 16). David called himself: “A reproach of men and despised of the people” (Ps. 22:6). Yet, the time came that he was brought back and accepted as king over all Israel (2 Sam. 19:10-15). With regard to these prophetic examples Messiah gave a very expressive parable: “A certain high-born man went to a distant country to have himself appointed king and then to return. But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him to say: ‘We will not that this man should reign over us.’ And it came to pass, on his arrival back, having received the kingdom, that he commanded . . . Those enemies of mine, who would not that I should reign over them, bring them here and kill them in front of me” (Lk. 19:12,14,15,27; cf. Jn. 19:15).
  35. Midrash Thillim (on Ps. 2:7): “It is also written: ‘Behold my servant, whom I uphold; rny chosen, in whom my soul delights’ (Is. 42:1) . . . Rabbi Yudan said: All these goodly promises are in the decree of the King, the King of kings, who will fulfil them for the Lord Messiah.”
  36. Midrash Rabbah (97): “Of the Messiah it is written, ‘And His throne (shall endure) as the sun before Me’ (Ps. 89:36). – See also Dan. 2:34-44; 7:13,14.
  37. Midrash Rabbah (99:8): “The sceptre shall not depart from Judah (Gen. 49:10); this refers to the throne of kingship – ‘Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a sceptre of justice will be the sceptre of your kingdom’ (Ps. 45:6).”
  38. Talmud Sanhedrin (43a) says: “Jesus, who was of royal descent.” – Both parents, His mother and foster-father, were of the house and lineage of David and had therefore at the time of the enrolment to go to Bethlehem, the city of David (Lk. 2:1-5). Their names must have been in the register that they could trace their ancestry back to King David. We find in Matthew 1:1-16 the genealogy of Joseph, who gave to Jesus the legal right to the Davidic throne; and in Luke 3:23-38 the genealogy of Mary, who was obviously an heiress to the house of David (cf. Num. 27:8; 36:8,9). It is beyond all doubt that Matthew and Luke must have got their genealogical tables from the official Temple register. Unfortunately, with the destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70) all official registers were destroyed. Thus, only the New Testament genealogical tables and references are left to give us incontrovertible proof that Jesus is a direct descendant of King David. (See Acts 13:22, 23; Rom. 1:3; 2 Tim. 2:8; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 22:16). The Jewish Encyclopedia (Vol. V, 597, col. 1) says: “It is assumed that under Herod l all genealogical rolls kept in the Temple were destroyed (Sacas, ‘Beitrage’ II, 157). The loss of the official genealogies was deeply deplored as a calamity, more especially because of their importance for the understanding of the books of Chronicles (Pes. 62b; B.B. 109)”.
  39. Midrash Numbers (13:14): “How do we know the same of the King Messiah? Because it is written, ‘He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth’ (Ps. 72:8). How do we know that He will hold sway on land? Because it is written,’All kings shall prostrate themselves before Him; all nations shall serve Him’ (Ps. 72:11).”
  40. Rabbi Daniel Zion, former Chief Rabbi of Bulgaria, said (September 14th, 1952) on “Kol Israel”, the official broadcasting station in Israel, (in the “United Protestant Service’): “. . . On the first of the month of Shebat, 5710 (Spring 1950), the Holy Spirit came upon me and showed me that Jesus is indeed the Messiah, who suffered for us and sacrificed Himself for our sin. A burning fire in my heart gave me no rest until I had publicly confessed my faith . . . May it be God’s will that Jesus the Messiah come to unite the whole world in one faith, that everyone be prepared for the Kingdom of the Almighty, in order that the words of Zechariah 14 be fulfilled: ‘And the LORD be King over all the earth’ through Jesus Messiah.”
  41. Some became prejudiced by the “Toledoth Jeshu” (i.e. “Life of Jesus”, a book existing since the 5th century) which denies the supernatural conception, the divine works and bodily resurrection of the Messiah. Joseph Klausner (1874- 1958), Prof. of Literature at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, admits that the “Toledoth Jeshu” has not the slightest historical value and was obviously written in opposition to the New Testament (From his book “Jesus of Nazareth”). Others have been restrained from reading the New Testament because of misrepresentations of so-called “Christians” – through anti-Semitism, crusades, inquisitions, blood libels, pogroms and other persecutions.
  42. The expression “according to the flesh” is found only in relation to the Messiah (Rom. 1:3; 9:5; Acts 2:30). Would it be applied to any other person, one would immediately ask: In what other way could he have come than in the flesh? Has he a higher nature?” It implies that Jesus is not only the descendant of David but He is indeed the Son of God. Flavius Josephus (37-100), Jewish Antiquities (XVIII,3.3): “About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works.” – The Jewish War (II,9;3): “At that time there appeared a man, if it is permissible to call him a man. His nature (and form) were human, but his appearance (was something) more than a man; notwithstanding his works were divine.” (Slavonic version)
  43. Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (XVIII, 3:3): “When Pilate, upon hearing Him accused by men of highest standing among us, had condemned Him to be crucified, those who loved Him at the first did not give up their affection for Him. ON THE THIRD DAY HE APPEARED TO THEM RESTORED TO LIFE, for the prophets of God had prophesied these and countless other marvellous things about Him.”
  44. “He shewed himself after his suffering and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive” (Acts 1:3). The New Testament records 14 appearances (11 BEFORE HIS ASCENSION): (1) to Mary Magdalene – Mk. 16:9; Jn. 20:11-18; (2) to the women – Mt. 28:9,10; (3) to Simon Peter – Lk. 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5; (4) to the Emmaus disciples – Mk. 16:12; Lk. 24:13-31; (5) to the Twelve (ten apostles and two Emmaus disciples) – Lk. 24:35-49; Jn. 20:19-24; 1 Cor. 15:5; (6) to more than five hundred brothers – 1 Cor. 15:6; (7) to James – 1 Cor. 15:7; (8) to all the apostles – Mk. 16:14; Jn. 20:26-29; 1 Cor. 15:7; (9) to seven apostles by the sea of Tiberias – Jn. 21:1-22; (10) to the Eleven on a mountain in Galilee – Mt. 28:16-20; (11) on ascension day – Lk. 24:50-52; Acts 1:3, 9-12. (3 APPEARANCES AFTER HIS ASCENSION): (1) to Stephen – Acts 7:55; (2) to Paul – Acts 9:3-6; 22:6-10,17,18; 26:12-18; (3) to John – Rev. 1:12-18; 5:6-9; 19:11-16
  45. Eight resurrections: 1 Kings 17:17-23; 2 Kings 4:32-35; 13:21; Lk. 7:12-16; 8:49-55; Jn. 11:38-44; Acts 9:36- 41; 20:9-12.
  46. Debarim Rabbah (c. 9): “You die through the sin of the first man who brought death into the world. For as over himself so by his transgression Adam brought death over all his descendants until the end.” (See also Siphre, 138b).
  47. Siphre: “Rabbi Jose the Galilean said, ‘Come and learn the merits of the King Messiah and the reward of the Just from the first man who received but one commandment, a prohibition, and transgressed it. Consider how many deaths were inflicted upon himself, upon his own generation, and upon those who followed them, till the end of all generations. Which attribute is greater, the attribute of goodness, or the attribute of vengeance?’ He answered, ‘The attribute of goodness is greater, and the attribute of vengeance is the less,’ – ‘How much more then, will the King Messiah, who endures affliction and pains for the transgressors (as it is written, ‘He was wounded’, etc.), justify all generations. This Is the meaning of the word, ‘And the Lord made the iniquity of us all to meet upon Him’ (Isa, 53:6).
  48. Talmud Sukkah (52a): “He (Messiah) said in the presence (of God), ‘Lord of the world, I ask only life from You!’ (God) answered Him, ‘Life? Before You opened Your mouth did Your grandfather David prophesy in this matter concerning You’ (Psalm 21:4), ‘He asked you for life, and you gave it to him’.” – Midrash Thillim: ” ‘For you have made him most blessed for ever’ means that all the nations will bless themselves in the King Messiah.”
  49. The 13th article of the Jewish creed, formulated by Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon (Maimonides, 1135-1204) says: “I believe with perfect faith that there will be a resurrection of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, blessed be His name, and exalted be the remembrance of Him for ever and ever.” This has been prophesied in the Tenach (Job 19:25,26; Ps. 49:15; Is. 25:8; Hos. 13:14; Dan. 12:2) and in the New Testament (Matt. 22:31,32; Jn. 5:28,29; 6:40; 11:23-25; Acts 24:15; 26:23; 1 Cor. 15:20-23; 2 Cor. 4:14; 1 Thess. 4:16; Rev. 20:8).
  50. Messiah’s way was foreshadowed by the prophetic life of Joseph who went THROUGH DEEP HUMILIATION TO EXALTATION: (1) sent by his father (Gen. 37:14,16; 36 times in the gospel of John); (2) His brothers hated and envied him (Gen. 37:4,5,8,11; Mt. 27:18,20; Jn. 7:7; 15:24,25); (3) They wanted to kill him (Gen. 37:18-20; Jn. 11:53); (4) Stripped him of his robe (Gen. 37:3, 23; Mt. 27:28a; Ps. 22:18; Jn. 19:23,24); (5) Cast him into the pit (Gen. 37:24; lsa. 53:8a); (6) Sold him as a slave (Gen. 37:28,36; 45:4,5; Ex. 21:32; Zech, 11:12,13; Mt. 26:14-16; 27:3,4); (7) Regarded him as dead (Gen. 37:29,30,33; 42:13,32,36,38); (8) He was deeply humiliated (Gen. 39:20; 40:15,23; Phil. 2:7,8); (9) God was with him (Gen. 39:2,3,21,23; Jn. 8:16,29; 16:32); (10) HE WAS EXALTED next to Pharaoh (Gen. 41:14,39,42; Ps. 80:17; 110:1); (11) ALL THINGS IN HIS HANDS (Gen. 39:3-6,8,22; 41:40,41,43,44; 45:8, 9,26; Mt. 11:27; 28:18; Jn. 3:35; 13:3; 17:2); (12) “SAVIOUR OF THE WORLD” or “SUSTAINER OF LIFE”, i.e. his Egyptian name “Zaphnath paaneah” (Gen. 41:45; 45:5,7,11; 47:12,25; 50:20,21); (13) ALL BOWED DOWN TO HIM (Gen. 37:7,9,10; 41:43; 42:6; 43:26,28; 44:14; 50:18; Ps. 72:9,11; Phil. 2:10); (14) THE LORD OF ALL (Gen. 42:30,33; 44:18; 45:8,9; 47:25; Rev. 17:14; 19:16). (See also footnote 13).
  51. Maimonides writes to Rabbi Jacob Alfajumi: “Thus said Isaiah, as he in time prophesied that kings will hearken to Him (i.e. Messiah), saying: ‘Kings will shut their mouth at him; for that which had not been told them will they see; and that which they had not heard will they consider’ (Is. 52:15).”
  52. Plinius Secundus (62-113), the Proconsul of the Province Bithynia, wrote (Epistolae X, 96 – 97): “The Christian sing a holy song in which they call upon Christ as God (Carmen Christo quasi deo dicere secum invicem).” This is verified by references of the New Testament where Messiah is called: Saviour God – Titus 1:3; 2:10,13; 3:4; 2 Pet. 1:1; God – 1 Tim. 3:16; 1 Jn. 5:20b; Sovereign – 2 Pet. 2:1; Jude 4; LORD – Acts 10:36; 1 Cor. 2:8; 2 Cor. 4:5; Phil. 2:11.