Messiah in Jewish writings: (How To Recognise The Messiah)

A comparison of Rabbinic commentaries on Messianic Passages in the Tenach with the New Testament counterparts.


This article presents Bible references which show a perfect harmony between the Old and New Testaments. In addition quotations are given from the following rabbinical sources:

TARGUM (= Translation). The Aramaic Targums were oral, like the “Oral Law”. The best known is the Targum Onkelos (about 2nd Century), which is on the whole a literal translation. (Onkelos is said to have been a pupil of Rabbi Gamaliel). The other Targums (generally paraphrastic) are the Targum Jonathan (about 4th Century) and the Targum Palestine, also named the Targum Jerushalmi, or pseudo Jonathan (about 7th Century).

TALMUD, consists of two distinct parts: the Mishnah and its commentary the Gemara. The Mishnah (a Jewish code of Laws) was compiled and edited by Rabbi Jehudah Hanassi (230 C.E.). There are two Gemaras: the Palestinian (compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Jochanan about 400 C.E.) and the Babylonian (compiled in Babylon about 512 C.E.). Mishnah and Palest. Gemara are called “Palestinian Talmud”; Mishnah and Babylonian Gemara are the “Babylonian Talmud”.

MIDRASH (= Exposition), a homiletic interpretation of the Bible, which came into being side by side with the Talmud.

PESIQTA RABBATI, a collection of sermons on pentateuchal and prophetic lessons. (It came into being 845 C.E.)

SAADIA ben Joseph, Gaon of Sura. Born 892 in Egypt, died 942 in Sura, Babylonia. He was a Bible translator and talmudist.

RASHI (Rabbi Shlomo Izaaki), lived in France (1040 1105). He is considered as the originator of the modern school of Jewish interpretation.

ABEN EZRA, Abraham ben Meier (called Rabe Rabbi Abraham ben Ezra), born 1093 in Spain, died 1167 in Rome. He was one of the greatest Jewish Bible commentators.

RAMBAM (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon), or Maimonides. Born 1135 in Spain, died 1204 in Egypt. He is the composer of the 13 Articles of the Jewish faith (“Ani Ma’amin”) and is considered as a great commentator on the Bible.

KIMCHI, or Radak (Rabbi David Kimchi), lived in France 1160-1235. The Jews applied to him, by a play on words, a Talmudic saying (Aboth III,17): “No Kimchi, no understanding of the Scriptures”.

ZOHAR (= Brightness), the principal work of the Cabbala. It was issued by Moses ben Shemtob de Leon in Spain (1250 1305) as “The Midrash of Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai”, a Tanna of the second century (disciple of Rabbi Akiva). It had a strong influence on late Judaism (particularly among the mystics) and was referred to as “The Holy Zohar”.

GERSONIDES, or Ralbag (Rabbi Levi ben Gerson), lived in France 1288 1344.

RABBI JOSEPH ALBO Spanish preacher and theologian. Born not later than 1380, died 1444. He is chiefly known as the author of the fundamentals of Judaism “Ikkarim” (Principles).

SHALOM (Abraham ben Isaak ben Jehudah ben Samuel), died in Italy 1492. He is the writer of the work “Neve Shalom.”

ABARBANEL (Rabbi Isaak Abravanel), born 1437 in Portugal, died 1508 in Italy. He was a celebrated Jewish statesman, philosopher, theologian and regarded as one of the greatest exegetes.

FARISSOL (Abraham ben Mordecai), Italian scholar; born in France 1451, died about 1525-26.

RABBI ELIJAH DE VIDAS (16th century), Cabbalist of Safed, Palestine.

RABBI MOSES ALSCHECH born 1508 in Adrianople, died 1600 in Damascus. He was Chief Rabbi in Safed. His lectures were published as “Commentaries on the books of the Holy Scriptures.”

YALKUT (= Compilation) of Shim’oni. Author cannot be determined with certainty. It has been ascribed to Rabbi Simeon of Frankfort, Germany (13th century), and was first edited in Salonica (1521).

The reader will find other names (as Sanhedrin, Sukkah, Yoma etc.) which are parts of the Talmud. And further are given some quotations of two historians:

FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS General and historian. Born 37 or 38 C.E. died after 100 C.E.
TACITUS Roman writer on Jews (85-120).

For a deeper understanding of the subject the reader is invited to look up all the Bible references. The following versions have been consulted: 1) The translation of the Jewish Publications Society 2) The King James Version 3) The American Revised Version 4) The translation by J.N. Darby 5) The Amplified Old Testament


O send out thy light and thy truth: let them lead me. Psalm 43:3
The entrance of thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the simple. Psalm 119:130
LORD, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us. Psalm 4:6


I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Genesis 3:5. (Comp. Hebrews 2:14,15; Luke 10:19)

a) Rabbi David Kimchi: As Thou wentest forth for the salvation of Thy people by the hand of the Messiah the Son of David, who shall wound Satan, the head, the king and prince of the house of the wicked.
Targum Jonathan (to Genesis 4:1): And Adam knew his wife which desired the Angel, and she conceived and bare Cain, and said; ‘I have obtained the Man, the Angel of Jehovah’.

Midrash Rabbah (23): Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Samuel, Eve had respect to that Seed which is coming from another place. And who is this? This is the Messiah, the King.


In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Gen. 22:18; 26:4; 28:14.

To Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. Galatians 3:16.

Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord. Psalm 118:26 (Comp Matthew 21:9-14).

Jesus said: Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. Matthew 23:29

Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning every one of you from his iniquities. Acts 3:26

Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him. His name shall endure for ever; his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and man shall be blessed in him. Psalm 72:11,17.

b) Midrash Numbers (13:14): How do we know the same of the King Messiah? Because it is written, “he shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the River unto the ends of the earth” (Psalm 72:8) How do we know that He will hold sway on land? Because it is written, “All kings shall prostrate themselves before him: all nations shall serve him” (Psalm 72:11).

Midrash Rabbah (97): Of the Messiah it is written, “And his throne (shall endure) as the sun before me” (Psalm 89:36).

Midrash Thillim (to Psalm 72:17): “His name shall endure for ever” – that is the King Messiah … (Comp. also Sanhedrin 98b).

Honour and majesty has thou laid upon him. For thou hast made him most blessed for ever. Psalm 21:5,6.

c) Midrash Thillim: ‘For thou shalt make him most blessed for ever’ means that all the nations shall bless themselves in the King Messiah.

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Messiah. Ephesians 1:3


I see him, but not now: I behold him, but not nigh: There shall come forth a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel. Numbers 24:17

d) Targum Onkelos: Kings shall arise out of Jacob, and Messiah be anointed from Israel, and reign over all nations. Targum Palestine: When the mighty King of Jacob’s house shall reign, and the Messiah, the power sceptre of Israel, be anointed, He shall slay the princes of Moab.
Zohar: God has decreed to build up Jerusalem and show a Star . . . This Star is the Messiah.

Foreshadowed in the life of Joseph

He dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me. And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, ‘What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?’ Genesis 37:9,10

I, Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things for the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright, the morning star. Revelation 22:16

Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we saw his star in the east, and are come to worship him. Then Herod privily called the wise men, and learned of them carefully what time the star appeared. Matthew 2:2,7

The dayspring from on high hath visited us. Luke 1:78


e) Pesiqta Rabbati (Pisqa 36): What is the meaning of: ‘In thy light shall we see light’ (Psalm 36:9)? To which light is the community of Israel looking forward in full expectancy ? To the light of the Messiah!

The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined. Isaiah 9:2

I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth. Isaiah 49:6

Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory of my people Israel. Luke 2:30 32

In him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in the darkness; and the darkness apprehended it not. John 1:4,5

Jesus spake unto them saying: 1 am the light of the world he that followeth me shall not walk in the darkness, but shall have the light of life. John 8:12 (Comp. John 12:46; Isaiah 60:1; Ephesians 5:8 14.)

That ye may shew forth the excellencies of him, who called you out of darkness into his marvellous light. 1 Peter 2:9

This is the judgement, that the light is come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. John 3:19


Judah is a young lion . . . The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until Shiloh come: and unto him shall the obedience of the people be. Genesis 49:9,10 (Comp. Hosea 5:14 6:3.)

f) Yalkut Shim. Ber.: ‘Judah is a young lion’. That is Messiah the Son of David. Midrash Rabbah: ‘Judah is a lion’s whelp’. Rabbi Hama ben Rabbi Hanina said: This alludes to the Messiah the Son of David.
Rashi: ‘Until Shiloh come’, that is King Messiah, Whose is the kingdom. (See also Talm. Sanh. (98b) and note h). It is evident, that our Lord hath sprung out of Judah. Hebrews 7:14 (Comp. Matthew 15:22; 20:30,31; 21:9,15).

g) Tract Sanhedrin (43a): Jesus, who was of royal descent. (Comp. note o Midrash Rabbah.)

Behold, the Lion that is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath overcome, to open the book and the seven seals thereof. Revelation 5:5


He learned of them carefully what time the star appeared. Matthew 2:7

The scepter of Judah shall not depart, until Shiloh come. . .Genesis 49:10

h) Midrash Rabbah: The rulership abideth with the tribe of Judah until the arrival of Shiloh i.e. Messiah.
Targum Palestine: Kings shall not cease, nor rulers from the house of Judah, nor sapherim teaching the law from his seed, till the time that King Messiah shall come, who will arise from Judah.

Sanhedrin (346): Since the Sanhedrin no longer had jurisdiction over capital offences (Comp. John 18:31), there is no practical utility in this ruling, which can become effective only in the days of the Messiah.

Simeon, this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel (Comp Luke 2:38; 3:15): and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been revealed unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. He blessed God, and said, Now lettest thou thy servant depart, O Lord, according to thy word, in peace; for mine eyes have seen thy salvation. Luke 2:25-30.

i) Tacitus: All are looking for the great leader, who should arise out of Judah, and rule the world.
Flavius Josephus (The Jewish War, B.VI. ch.5.sect.4): But what more than all else incited them to the war was an ambiguous oracle, likewise found in their sacred scriptures, to the effect that at that time one of their country would become ruler of the world. This they understood to mean one of their own race.

Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks… And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off (Comp. Isaiah 53:8), and shall have nothing. And the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Daniel 9:24-26.

j) Talmud Megillah (3a): He (Jonathan b. Uzziel) further sought to reveal by a Targum the inner meaning of the Hagiographa, but a Bath Kol went forth and said, Enough! What was the reason? Because the data (end) of the Messiah is foretold in it. (The reference is probably to the book of Daniel.)

Nazir (32b):Rabbi Joseph said: Had I been there, I should have said to them: Is it not written: “The Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord are these” (Jeremiah 7:4), which points to (the destruction of) the first and second temples? (Since it indicates that there would be three temples. Thus the destruction was foretold and could have been anticipated.) Granted they knew it would be destroyed, did they not know when this would occur? Abaye objected: And did they not know when? Is it not written: “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and thy holy city”? (Daniel 9:24).

Sanhedrin (97a-97b): The tanna debe Eliyyahu teaches: The world is to exist six thousand years. In the first two thousand there was desolation (i.e. no Torah). Two thousand years the Torah flourished, and the next two thousand years is the Messianic era (i.e. Messiah should have come at the beginning of the last two thousand years; the delay is due to our sins). R.Kattina said: Six thousand years shall the world exist, and one (thousand, the seventh) it shall be desolate, as it is written, “And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day” (Isaiah 2:11). Abaye said: It will be desolate two (thousand), as it is said, “After two days will he revive us; in the third day, he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight”(Hosea 6:2). (Comp Psalm 90:4; Hosea 5:15 and note V)

Rashi: Because after the second two thousand years, the Messiah must have come and the wicked kingdom should have been destroyed.

Sanhedrin (97a): Rab said: All the predestined dates (for redemption) have passed.


But thou Bethlehem Ephratah, which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old from everlasting. Micah 5:2. (Comp. Matthew 2:1-6)

k) Targum Palestine: Out of thee Bethlehem shall Messiah go forth before me to exercise dominion over Israel.

Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David. Luke 2:4.

And the angel said unto them, Be not afraid; for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy which shall be to all the people: for there is born to you this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. Luke 2:10-11

Others said, He is the Messiah. But some said, ‘What, doth the Messiah come out of Galilee? Hath not the scripture said that the Messiah cometh of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was?’ John 7:41, 42.


In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time hath he made it glorious, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations. Isaiah 9:1 (Comp. Matthew 4:13 16.)

Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of diseases and all manner of sickness among the people. Matthew 4:23

And the multitude said, ‘This is the prophet, Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee.’ Matthew 21:11


More wonderful than the birth of Isaac

And the Lord said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old? Is any thing too hard for the Lord? Genesis 18:14 (Comp. Jeremiah 32:17,27; Luke 1:36,37)

l) Midrash Rabbah (53,6): R. Judah ben R. Simon said: He in His glory made her conceive; hence, ‘And the Lord remembered Sarah’. Midrash Rabbah (60,16): You find that as long as Sarah lived, a cloud hung over her tent (signifying the Divine Presence).

He said, Hear ye now, O house of David; is it a small thing for you to weary men, that ye weary my God also? (Comp. Isaiah 43:24) Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel (God is with us). Isaiah 7:13,14 (Comp. Matthew 1:18 23)

The angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary. And he came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee. But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this might be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High: and the Lord shall give unto him the throne of his father David and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. And Mary said unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee: therefore also that which is to be born shall be called holy, the Son of God. Luke 1:26 35

Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of peace. Isaiah 9:6. (Comp. John 14:27)

m) Targum Jonathan: Messiah, whose peace will be multiplied upon us in those days.
Babylonian Talmud (Tract Derech Erez Zutha): Rabbi Jose the Galilean said: Also the name of the Messiah is called Peace, for it is written (Isaiah 9:6): “Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.”
Midrash Rabbah (Debarim 1): The Rabbis lay the following words in the mouth of the patriarch Jacob: “I have still to bring forth the King Messiah as it is written: ‘Unto us a child is born’.” (See also note K.)


1. Chosen of God

Behold, I will bring forth my servant the Branch. Zechariah 3:8

Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch . . . He shall be called, JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Jeremiah 23:5,6 (Comp. Matthew 5:17 20).

n) Targum Jonathan: And I will raise unto David the Messiah, the Righteous. Midrash Mishle (19:21): Rab Huna counted amongst the seven names of the Messiah also: ‘Jehovah Zidkenu’ (referring to Jeremiah 23:6). Rabbi Joseph Albo of Toledo (Sepher Ikkarim 28:54): The scripture calleth the name of the Messiah ‘Jehovah Zidkenu’, because He is the Mediator through whom we shall get the righteousness of the Lord.
Rabbi David Kimchi: The name of the Messiah is therefore called ‘Jehova Zidkenu’, because in His days will the righteousness of the Lord be a continual support for us. (See also note M; Isaiah 45:23 25; Philippians 2:5 11).

Behold, the man whose name is the Branch; he shall grow up out of his place and he shall build the temple of the Lord. Zechariah 6:12 (Comp. John 2:19; Ephesians 2:20 22; 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Corinthians 3:11 17.)

o) Targum Jonathan: Behold the man; Messiah is His name. He will be revealed, and He will become great and build the Temple of God. Maimonides (writes to Rabbi Jacob Alfajumi): For thus said the Holy One, blessed be He, as He revealed us the matter (concerning the Messiah): Behold, there is a man whose name is “Branch”; for under his feet shall it sprout (Zechariah 6:12). Abarbanel: Rashi has written that the words, ‘Behold the Man whose name is the Branch’, have by some been interpreted of the Messiah. He here means Jonathan, whose interpretation he did not receive, for he adds that the building here spoken of refers altogether to the second Temple; but if this prophecy refers to the second Temple and Zerubbabel, I wish I could ask them, why it said, ‘The Man whose name is the Branch, and He shall grow up from beneath Him’. Surely we know that every man grows up to manhood, and even to old age and hoary hairs. Rashi, perceiving this objection, has interpreted this to mean that He shall be of the royal seed; but this is not correct, for the words (from beneath him) teach nothing about the royal family.
. . . But, at all events, I should like to ask them, if these words be spoken of Zerubabbel, why does the prophet add that ‘He shall build the Temple of the Lord’. Why this repetition to express one single event? The commentators have no answer but this, ‘It is to confirm the matter’. But, if this be the case, it would be better to repeat the words three or four times, for then the confirmation would have been greater still. I should further ask them how they can interpret of Zerubbabel those words, ‘He shall bear the glory and shall sit and rule upon His throne’; for he (Zerubbabel) never ruled in Jerusalem, and never sat upon the throne of the kingdom, but only occupied himself in building the Temple; and afterwards returned to Babylon.

Midrash Rabbah (97): Zerubbabel who built the second Temple; and from him will be descended the Messiah, who will rebuild the Temple. (See Matthew 1:1 16, the genealogy of Joseph, who gave to Jesus the legal right to the Davidic throne; and Luke 3:23 38, the genealogy of Mary, who was obviously an heiress to the house of David (Comp. Numbers 27:8; 36:8,9; Nehemiah 7:63). (Comp. note g Tract. Sanhedrin 43a.)

In that day shall the Branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious . . . for them, that are escaped of Israel. Isaiah 4:2

p) Targum Jonathan has paraphrased the ‘Branch of Jehovah’ to the ‘Messiah of God’. Kimchi: The explanation of the ‘Branch of Jehovah’ is the Messiah ben David, as it is written ‘Behold, I will raise unto David a righteous Branch’.

2. Rejected by men

Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? (Nazareth is derived from Netzer = The Green Branch). John 1:46.

Nazareth, where He (Jesus) had been brought up. Luke 4:16.

He came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken by the prophets, that he should be called a Nazarene (a green Branch). Matthew 2:23

And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him. Isaiah 11:1,2

q) Targum Jonathan: Messiah, who is of the sons of the sons of Isai. Sanhedrin (93b): Messiah as it is written (Isaiah 11:2,3), ‘And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of knowledge of the fear of the Lord. And shall make Him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord’. Maimonides (writes to Jacob Alfajumi): It is said about Him (the Messiah), ‘And his delight will be in the fear of the Lord’ (Isaiah 11:3).

He grew up before him as a tender plant and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness: and when we see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. Isaiah 53:2 (Comp. Isaiah 52:14)

r) Maimonides (writes to Rabbi Jacob Alfajumi): And likewise said Isaiah that He (the Messiah) would appear without acknowledging a father or mother: ‘He grew up before him as a tender plant and as a root out of a dry ground etc.’ (Comp. Luke 2:46 49; Matthew 12:46 50.)

He was despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrow and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Isaiah 53:3 (Comp. note aa Pesiqta; Isaiah 49:7).

He was despised: like Joseph, Genesis 37:8 (Comp. Luke 19:12 14); like Moses, Exodus 2:14 (Comp. Acts 7:35); like David, Psalm 22:6 8 (Comp. Matthew 27:39 43).

Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God unto you by works of powers and wonders and signs, which God wrought by him in your midst, as ye yourselves also know him, being delivered up by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye by the hand of lawless men have crucified and slain. Acts 2:22,23 (Comp. Acts 10:38,39). (See note (U) Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XVIII, ch.3. sect 3)

Paul said: I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. — And it came to pass, that, as I made my journey, and was come nigh unto Damascus about noon, suddenly there shone from heaven a great light round about me. And I fell unto the ground, and heard a voice saying unto me, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? And I answered, Who art thou, Lord? And he said unto me, I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest. Acts 26: 9; 22: 6 8

I Jesus . . . am the root and the offspring of David. Revelation 22:16


By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob from thence is the shepherd. Genesis 49:24

I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David: he shall feed them, and he shall be shepherd over them. Ezekiel 34:23

For thus saith the Lord God: Behold, I myself even I, will search for my sheep and will seek them out. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered. Ezekiel 34:11,12.

Behold, the Lord God will come as a mighty one . . . He shall feed his flock like a shepherd. Isaiah 40:10,11.

When he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion for them, because they were distressed and scattered as sheep not having a shepherd. Matthew 9:36 (Comp. Matthew 15:24.)

All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all. Isaiah 53:6.

Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts; smite the shepherd and the sheep shall be scattered. Zechariah 13:7 (Comp. John 10:24 30).

s) Abarbanel (in a bitter controversial spirit): The words, ‘the Man my Fellow’, are spoken of Jesus the Nazarene, for, according to the sentiment of the children of Edom (i.e. the Christians) and their faith, He was the Son of God, and of the same substance, and therefore He is called, according to their words, ‘The Man my Fellow’. (Abarbanel is overlooking the fact that it is not man but Jehovah Himself who calls Him ‘My Shepherd’ and ‘My Fellow’).

Jesus said: I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep. Therefore doth the Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. John 10:11,17 (Comp. Mark 10:45; Matthew 16:21 25.)

Foreshadowed in the attitude of Moses and David

Moses prayed: Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold. Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin, but if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written. Exodus 32:31,32.

David prayed: . . . These sheep, what have they done? Let thy hand, I pray thee, O Lord my God, be on me and on my father’s house; but not on thy people, that they should be smitten. 1 Chronicles 21:17 (Comp. 2 Sam.18:32)

The God of peace brought again from the dead the great shepherd of the sheep with the blood of the eternal covenant, even our Lord Jesus. Hebrews 13:20.

By whose stripes ye were healed. For ye were going astray like sheep; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and overseer of your souls. Peter 2:24,25 (Comp. Luke 15 :3 7.)


Smite the shepherd and the sheep shall be scattered. Zechariah 13:7 (See Matthew 26:31.)

We did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. He was oppressed, yet he humbled himself and opened not his mouth; as a lamb that is led to the slaughter. Isaiah 53:4-7 (Comp. Is. 53:10 and 1 Peter 3:18.)

t) R. Elijah de Vidas: The meaning of ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities’ is, that since the Messiah bears our iniquities, which produce the effect of His being bruised, it follows that whoso will not admit that the Messiah thus suffers for our iniquities must endure and suffer for them himself.

Zohar (Part II, fol. 212a and Part III, fol. 218a, Amsterdam edition): When Israel was in the Holy Land, they had their sufferings and afflictions removed from them by their prayers and sacrifices; but now the Messiah removes them from the children of the world. When the Holy One, blessed be He, wishes the recovery of the children of the world, He afflicts one righteous person from their midst, and for His sake all are healed. How is this known? It is written, ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities … and with his stripes we are healed’ (Isaiah 53:5).

Midrash (to Ruth 2:14): ‘And dip thy morsel in the vinegar’ refers to the sufferings (of the Messiah) as it is said: ‘But he was wounded because of our transgressions’ (Isaiah 53:5).

Sanhedrin (98b): Messiah . . . What is His name? The disciples of the School of the Rabbi (Jehudah Ha nassi, the author of the Mishnah) said: Cholaja (the sickly), for it says (Isaiah 53:4): ‘Surely he hath born our sicknesses and carried our pains; and we did regard him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted’. (See also note aa Pesiqta.)

Behold, the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. John 1:29 (Comp. 1 John 3:5; 2:2; John 4:42.)

Foreshadowed in the offering of Isaac

And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering . . . And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah Jireh. Genesis 22:8,14

Jesus said: Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day and he saw it, and was glad. John 8:56

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John 3:16

Foreshadowed in the Passover Lamb

Your lamb shall be without blemish. It is the Lord’s passover. When I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you. Exodus 12:5,11,13 (Comp. Exodus 12:46; John 19:31 36; Psalm 34: 20.)

Jesus said: Ye know that after two days is the Passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified. Matthew 26:2 (Comp. John 18:28,39; 19:14 Matthew 27:45 50.)

Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us.1 Corinthians 5:7 (Comp. 1 Peter 1:18 20; Revelation 5:9.)

Foreshadowed in the brazen serpent

And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived. Numbers 21:9

Jesus said: As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life. John 3:14,15 (Comp. 2 Corinthians 5:21; Isaiah 45:22.)

Thou hast brought me into the dust of death. Psalm 22:15

u) Pesiqta (36 to Isaiah 60): God made an agreement with Him (the Messiah) and said unto Him: ‘Those, whose sins will be forgiven for Thy sake, will span you into an iron yoke . . . and because of their sins will Thy tongue cleave to Thy jaws, as it saith (Psalm 22:15): My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death.’

Thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin. He poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. Isaiah 53:10,12 (Comp. Ephesians 1:7; Revelation 1:5,6.)

v) Luchoth Habberith (242a): He (the Messiah) will give Himself and His life over unto death, and His blood will atone for His people. Talmud Zebahim (6a): Surely atonement can only be made with the blood, as it says ‘For it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life’ (Leviticus 17:11). (See also Yoma (5a); Hebrews 9:22.)

Jesus said: This is my blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many unto remission of sins. Matthew 26:28 (Comp. Hebrews 9:12 15; Acts 13:38,39; 1 John 1:7 9.)

He was cut off out of the land of the living. For the transgression of my people was he stricken. Isaiah 53:8 (Comp. John 11 :49 51.)

After the threescore and two weeks shall the Messiah be cut off, and shall have nothing. Daniel 9:26
And He went out, bearing the cross for Himself, unto the place called “the place of a skull”, which is called in Hebrew “Golgotha”: where they crucified Him. John 19:17 (Comp. Matthew: 20:17 19; John 12:31 33.)

They pierced my hands and my feet. Psalm 22:16 Septuagint (Comp. Luke 24:39; John 20:20,25 29.)

They shall look unto me, whom they have pierced (comp. John 19:37): and shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one is in bitterness for the firstborn (comp. Exodus 12:29,30). In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. (Comp. 2 Chronicles 35:18 25) Zechariah 12:10,11.

w) Sukkah (52a): It is well according to him who explains that the cause (of the mourning) is the slaying of the Messiah the son of Joseph, since that well agrees with the Scripture verse: ‘And they shall look upon me, whom they have pierced: and shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son’.
Rashi (and also RaDak): Our Rabbis interpreted it as referring to Messiah ben Joseph.

Rabbi Moses Alshech: ‘They shall look unto Me’, for they shall lift up their eyes unto Me in perfect repentance, when they see Him whom they have pierced, that is Messiah, the Son of Joseph: for our Rabbis, of blessed memory, have said that He will take upon Himself all the guilt of Israel, and shall then be slain in the war to make atonement in such manner that it shall be accounted as if Israel had pierced Him, for on account of their sin He has died; and, therefore, in order that it may be reckoned to them as a perfect atonement, they will repent and look to the blessed One, saying that there is none beside Him to forgive those that mourn on account of Him who died for their sin: this is the meaning of ‘They shall look upon Me’.


By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel. Genesis 49:24

From him (Judah) shall come forth the corner stone. Zechariah 10:4

x) Targum Jonathan: ‘Out of him his King, out of him his Messiah’.

Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone of sure foundation; he that believeth shall not make haste. Isaiah 28:16 (Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:11; 1 Peter 2:4 6.)

Behold, the stone that I have set before Joshua; upon one stone are seven eyes: Behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the Lord of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day. Zechariah 3:9 (Comp. Revelation 5:6; Isaiah 11:2.)

He shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And many shall stumble thereon, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken. Isaiah 8:14,15 (Comp. 1 Peter 2:8; Romans 9:30; Luke 2:34.)

y) Sanhedrin (38a): The Son of David cannot appear ere the two ruling houses in Israel shall have come to an end, viz. the Exilarchate in Babylon and the Patriarchate in Palestine, for it is written, ‘And he shall be for a Sanctuary, for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel’ (Isaiah 8:14). (This interpretation of the Sanhedrin is not correct! For the Messiah must have come before the two houses of Israel have come to an end in order to be ‘a Sanctuary’, but to both of them ‘a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence’. Nevertheless, the reference is regarded as messianic.)

Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, the stone which the builders rejected, the same was made the head of the corner. This was from the Lord. And it is marvelous in our eyes? (See Psalm 118:22) He that falleth on this stone shall be broken to pieces; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will scatter him as dust. Matthew 21:42,44 (Comp. John 5:22,27; Acts 10:42; 17:31.)

Peter said before the Sanhedrin: ‘Be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that . . . Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead . . . He is the stone which was set at naught of you the builders, which was made the head of the corner. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. Acts 4:10 12

Thou sawest till a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and of clay, and brake them in pieces. And the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth. Daniel 2:34,35 (Comp. Daniel 2:44,45.)

z) Midrash Numbers (13:14): . . . and it also says (of the King Messiah), ‘Behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man . . . and there was given unto him dominion . . that all the peoples . . . should serve him etc.’ (Daniel 7:14); ‘And the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth’ (Daniel 2:35).


The Lord said unto Moses: I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name I will require it of him. Deuteronomy 18:18 (Comp. Hebrews 1:1 & Acts 3:22).

A. Targum Palestine: And a right Prophet (Prophet of Righteousness) will the Lord your God give you, a Prophet from among you, of your brethren like unto me with the Holy Spirit, will the Lord your God raise up unto you; to Him shall ye be obedient.

Rabbi Levi Ben Gershon: In fact the Messiah is such a Prophet as it is stated in the Midrash on the verse, ‘Behold My servant shall prosper’ (Isaiah 52:13) . . . Moses by the miracles which he wrought drew but a single nation to the worship of God, but the Messiah will draw all nations to the worship of God.
Neve Shalom: The King Messiah shall be exalted above Abraham, be high above Moses. (Comp. note E Midrash Tanchuma.)

Jesus said: If any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day. For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent me, He gave me commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. And I know that his commandment is life everlasting: whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak. John 12:47 50 (Comp. Matthew 24:35.)

Jesus was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. Hebrews 3:1,2

Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth. Numbers 12:3

Jesus said: Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. Matthew 11:28,29 (Comp. Jeremiah 6:16; John 14:6; 6:68,69.)

Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, there am I: and now the Lord God hath sent me, and his Spirit. Isaiah 48:16 (Comp. Isaiah 48:17; John 7:16,17.)

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord . . . (See Isaiah 61:1,2) And he (Jesus) began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears. Luke 4:18,19,21 (Comp. John 4:25,26; Acts 10:38; Matthew 11:2 6).

And great multitudes followed him, and he healed them all; and charged them that they should not make him known: That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet (Isaiah 42:1 4), saying, Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgement to the Gentiles. He shall not strive, nor cry neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets. A bruised reed shall he not break and a smoking flax shall he not quench, till he sent forth judgement unto victory. And in his name shall the Gentiles trust. Matthew 12:15 21

B. Midrash Thillim (to Psalm 2:7): It is also written: ‘Behold my servant whom I uphold: mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth’ (Isaiah 42:1) . . . R. Yudan said: All these goodly promises are in the decree of the King, the King of kings, who will fulfill them for the Lord Messiah.

Jesus said: Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words? John 5:45 47.

Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world. John 6:14 (Comp. John 11:27).

C. Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities (Book XVIII, ch.3 sect.3): Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Messiah. (Comp. Luke 7:11 16; John 9:17,30 33.)

(Jewish War, Book II, ch.9 sect. 3 – only in Slavonic version): At that time there appeared a man, if it is permissible to call him a man. His nature (and form) were human, but his appearance (was something) more than a man; (notwithstanding his works were divine). He worked miracles wonderful and mighty . . . And everything whatsoever he wrought through an invisible power, he wrought by word and command. Some said of him, ‘Our first lawgiver is risen from the dead and hath performed many healings and arts’ while others thought that he was sent from God.


They took the branches of the palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried out, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written. John 12:13 (Comp. John 1:49.)

Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: Behold, thy king cometh unto thee; he is just, and having salvation: lowly, and riding upon an ass, even upon a colt the foal of an ass. Zechariah 9:9 (Comp. Luke 22:25 27.)

D. Sanhedrin (99a): R. Hillel said: ‘There shall be no Messiah for Israel, because they have already enjoyed him in the days of Hezekiah’. R. Joseph said: ‘May God forgive him (for saying so). Now, when did Hezekiah flourish? During the first Temple. Yet Zechariah, prophesying in the days of the second, proclaimed, ‘Rejoice greatly O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold thy king cometh unto thee! he is just, having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass’.
Sanhedrin (98a): R. Alexandrai said: R. Joshua opposed two verses: it is written, ‘And behold, one like the son of man cometh with the clouds of heaven’ (Daniel 7:13); whilst (elsewhere) ‘lowly, and riding upon an ass!’ (Zechariah 9:9.) If they are meritorious, (He will come) with the clouds of heaven; if not, lowly and riding upon an ass.

Pesiqta (34): ‘He is just and victorious’ (Zechariah 9:9), that is the Messiah (who is so called).
Saadiah Gaon (to Daniel 7:13): But is it not written of the Messiah, ‘Lowly and riding upon an ass?’ Yes, but this shows that He will come in humility, and not in pride upon horses.

Then came Jesus forth, wearing a crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, ‘Behold the man! Behold your King!’ But they cried out, ‘away with him, away with him, crucify him.’ Pilate saith unto them, ‘Shall I crucify your King?’ The chief priest answered, ‘We have no king but Caesar.’ John 19:5,14,15 (Comp. Hosea 3:4,5;2 Samuel 19:11,12)

Thus saith the Lord, the redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise; princes also shall worship, because of the Lord that is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee. Isaiah 49:7 (Comp. Deuteronomy 17:15.)

Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. And there was written, JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. John 19:19

Jesus humbled himself, becoming obedient even unto death, yea, the death of the cross. Wherefore God highly exalted him, and gave unto him the name which is above every name. Philippians 2:8,9 (Comp. Matthew 23:10 12.)

He shall be exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high. Like as many were astonied at thee, his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men, so shall he startle many nations; kings shall shut their mouth at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider. Isaiah 52:13 15

E. Midrash Tanchuma (on Isaiah 52:13): He was more exalted than Abraham, more extolled than Moses, higher than the archangels. (See also notes A Neve Shalom.) Maimonides (writes to Rabbi Jacob Alfajumi): Thus said Isaiah, as he in time prophesied that kings will hearken to Him (i.e. Messiah), saying: ‘Kings will shut their mouth at him; for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider’ (Isaiah 52:13).

To the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the lowest of men. Daniel 4:17 (Comp. Matthew 25:31 46.)


And their prince shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them; and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto me: for who is he that hath had boldness to approach unto me? saith the Lord. Jeremiah 30:21 (Comp. Hebrews 2:14 18; 4:15,16.)

F. Sanhedrin (98b): R. Nahman said: If He (the Messiah) is of those living it might be one like myself, as it is written: ‘And their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from the midst of them’. (See note I Midrash Thillim.)

A great high priest, who hath passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God. Hebrews 4:14

The Lord saith unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand. (Comp. Matthew 22: 41 46.) The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek. Psalm 110:1,4 (Comp. Genesis 14:18; Hebrews 7:1 3, 21 28.)

G. Midrash Rabbah (to Genesis 18:1): In future God will let the Messiah sit at His right hand, as it is written (Psalm 110:1): ‘The Lord saith unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand’. (See also note S Midrash Thillim.).

It is evident that our Lord sprung out of Judah as to which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priests. Once for all he offered up himself. Hebrews 7:14, 27. (Comp. note v.)

He was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. Isaiah 53:12 (Comp. Luke 22:37; Mark 15:27,28.)

And Jesus said, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. Luke 23:34 (Comp. Acts 3:17,18.)

And behold the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent. Matthew 27:51

H. Flavius Josephus (Jewish war Book VI Ch.5 sect 3): . . . Moreover, the eastern gate of the inner (court of the) temple, which was of brass, and vastly heavy, and had been with difficulty shut by twenty men . . . was seen to be opened of its own accord. . . the men of learning understood it, that the security of their Holy House was dissolved of its own accord.

Rabbi Kimchi (Talm. Bab. Treatise Yoma fol. 39, col. 2): Our Rabbis have handed down the tradition, that forty years before the destruction of the Temple, the lot (for the goat that was to be sacrificed on the day of Atonement) did not come out on the right side, neither did the scarlet tongue (that used to be fastened between the horns of the scapegoat) turn white (as, according to tradition, it used to do, to signify that the sins of the people were forgiven), neither did the western lamp burn; the doors of the sanctuary also opened of their own accord, until R. Johanan ben Zacchai reproved them. He said: ‘O sanctuary, sanctuary! why dost thou trouble thyself?’

Through his own blood he entered in once for all into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption. Hebrews 9:12

He came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. Daniel 7:13

I. Midrash Thillim (to Psalm 21:7): R. Berechiah said in the name of R. Samuel: One verse reads of the King Messiah that: ‘One like the son of man . . . came to the Ancient of days, and they brought Him near before Him’ (Daniel 7:13), but in another verse God says, ‘I will cause Him to draw near, and He shall approach unto Me’ (Jeremiah 30:21). How reconcile the two? Angels will bring the King Messiah to the outer edge of their encampment, and then the Holy One, blessed be He, will reach out His hand and bring the King Messiah near to him. Hence it is said: ‘I will cause Him to draw near’.

We have such a high priest who sat down on the right hand of the Majesty in the heavens, a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle which the Lord pitched, not man. Hebrews 8:1,2

He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne. Zechariah 6:13 (See note o).

He ever liveth to make intercession for them. Hebrews 7:25

Christ having been once offered to bear the sins of many, shall appear a second time, apart from sin, to them that wait for him, unto salvation. Hebrews 9:28


Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake. Jeremiah 31:31 (Comp. Deuteronomy 31:16,17; Zechariah 11:9 13; Matthew 26:14 16; 27:3 10.)

Jesus, the mediator of the new covenant. Hebrews 12:24.

I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles. Isaiah 42:6

This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it. (Comp. Ezekiel 36:26 ; 2 Corinthians 3:3), and I will be their God, and they shall be my people . . . For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more. Jeremiah 31:33,34 (See Hebrews 10:16.)

Jesus . . . took the cup, and gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.’ Matthew 26:27,28 (Comp. 1 Timothy 2:5.)

Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers . . . In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee; and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people. Isaiah 49:7,8

The God of peace brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant. Hebrews 13:20

For this cause he is the mediator of the new covenant, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. For where there is a covenant, it is necessary for the death of the covenant-victim to take place. For a covenant is affirmed upon the dead (victim): for in no way is it of force so long as the covenant-victim is living. Wherefore even the first covenant hath not been dedicated without blood. Hebrews 9:15 18 (Comp. Exodus 24:3.)

He that despised Moses’ law died without mercy on the word of two or three witnesses: of how much sorer punishment, think ye, shall he be judged worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? Hebrews 10:28,29


J. Zohar (to Deuteronomy 6:4): ‘Hear, O Israel: Jehovah our God, Jehovah is one’. Why is there need of mentioning the name of God three times in this verse? The first Jehovah is the Father above. The second is the stem of Jesse, the Messiah who is to come from the family of Jesse through David. And the third one is the Way which is below (meaning the Holy Spirit who shows us the way) and these three are one.

She shall call his name IMMANUEL (God with us). Isaiah 7:14 (Comp. Matthew 1:22.)


K. Iggereth Teman (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon writes to Jacob Alfajumi): God named Him (the Messiah) with six names as He says concerning Him: ‘For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder: and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God, Mighty, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace’. That He calleth Him God in a distinctive manner, is to say with it, that His glory surpasses that of all other children of men.

Aben Ezra: There are some interpreters who say that ‘Wonderful, Everlasting Father’ are names of God and only ‘Prince of Peace’ is the name of the child. But according to my view the interpretation is right (which says): all are the names of the child. (See also note m.)

Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. I and my Father are one. John 14:9,10; 10:30 (Comp. John 1:18; 6:46.)

. . . out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting. Micah 5:2 (Comp. Proverbs 8:22-30 and note k.)

Jesus said unto them, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.” John 8:53 (Comp. John 17:5,24.)

L. Abodath Hakkodesh (c 43): The Messiah exists as a Living One in the Paradise till today.
Pesiqta Rabbati (Pisqa 36): For it says (Genesis 1:4), ‘And God saw the light, that it was good’. That teaches us that the Holy One looked on the Messiah and His work before the creation of the world and He preserved beneath the throne of His glory the original light for the Messiah and His generation. Then said Satan: Lord of the world! For whom is that light predestined which is preserved beneath the throne of Thy glory? God answered: For Him, who one day will throw you back with outrage and disgrace. Then asked Satan: Lord of the world, show Him to me! God said: Come and see Him! As he saw Him, he got alarmed and fell on his face. Fearfully he cried out: This is surely the Messiah, who will cast me and all the princes of the people of the world into hell, as it says (Isaiah 25:8), He hath swallowed up death for ever, yea the Lord God will wipe away the tears from off all faces.

And this is the name whereby he shall be called, JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Jeremiah 23:6 (Comp. Romans 3:21 26.)

M. Midrash Echa (1:51): What is the name of the King Messiah? To this answered Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: Jehovah is His name, for it is written: ‘This is the name whereby he shall be called: Jehovah Zidkenu’.

Midrash Thillim (21:2): God nameth also the King Messiah with His own (God’s) name. Rabbi Moses Alshech: Who is it, that says to Jerusalem that she shall be comforted on the ground of the admonition: Speak ye to the heart of Jerusalem (Isaiah 40:2)? Is it not Jehovah Zidkenu, that is the King Messiah? Even as it is written: ‘And this is the name whereby he shall be called: Jehovah Zidkenu,’ because of the right and the righteousness of His being. (Comp. note n.)

Their King passeth on before them, and Jehovah at the head of them. Micah 2:13

N. Midrash Mishle (6:11): This head is the King Messiah, who is appointed to stand at the head of Israel, as it is written (Micah 2:13), ‘And their King shall go before their face and Jehovah at the head of them’. (Comp. note X Aben Ezra on Malachi 3:1.)

Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of uprightness is the sceptre of thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and hated wickedness: Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Psalm 45:6,7 (Comp. Hebrews 1:8,9.)

O. Midrash Rabbah (99:8): The sceptre shall not depart from Judah (Genesis 49:10); this refers to the throne of kingship – ‘Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a sceptre of equity is the sceptre of thy kingdom’ Psalm 45:6.

He (John) said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the Prophet. John 1:23

Make straight in the desert a highway for our God. The glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together. Behold your God! Isaiah 40:3,5,9

God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself. 2 Corinthians 5:19

In him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. Colossians 2:9


What is his (God’s) name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest? Proverbs 30:4 (Comp. John 5:22 ; 1 John 2:22.) (See note p Targum Jonathan.)

I will tell of the decree: The Lord said unto me, Thou art my son; This day have 1 begotten thee. Psalm 2:7 (Comp. Mark 1:9 11; John 1:33,34; Matthew 17:1 5; 2 Peter 1:16 18.)

P. Sukkah (52a): Our Rabbis taught, The Holy One, blessed be He, will say to the Messiah, the son of David (may He reveal Himself speedily in our days), ‘Ask of Me anything, and I will give to Thee’, as it is said (Psalm 2:7,8): ‘I will tell of the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I will give the nations for thine inheritance’.

Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish in the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. Psalm 2:12

Q. Zohar (Part 3, fol. 307; Amsterdam edition): ‘Behold, Jehovah rideth upon a swift cloud’ (Isaiah 19:1 The Hebrew ‘Av Kal’ = 202) ; it is the Son, of Whom it is written, ‘Kiss the Son’ (Psalm 2:12 Hebrew ‘Bar’ = 202) Thou art the Son, the faithful shepherd; of Thee it is said, ‘Kiss the Son’. Thou art the Governor of the Universe, the Head of Israel, the Lord of ministering angels, the Son of the Highest, the Son of the Holy and Blessed One, yea the very Shechinah. (Comp. Matthew 28:18; John 3:35; Luke 1:32,35.)

He promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection of the dead; even Jesus Christ our Lord. Romans 1:2 4

The firstborn from the dead. Colossians 1:18

He shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the rock of my salvation. I also will make him firstborn, the highest of the kings of the earth. Psalm 89:26,27 (Comp. 1 Chronicles 17:13 ; Hebrews 1:5.)

R. Midrash Rabbah (to Exodus 19:6,7): Just as I have made Jacob a firstborn, for it says: Israel is My firstborn (Exodus 4:22), so will I make the King Messiah firstborn, as it says, ‘I also will make him firstborn’ (Psalm 89:27).

Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said Ye are gods (Psalm 82:6)? If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, (and the scripture cannot be broken), say ye of him, whom the Father sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God? John 10:34 36

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John 3:16

The high priest asked Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, I am; and ye shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming with the clouds of heaven. Mark 14:61 (Comp. Mark. 15:39.)

S. Midrash Thillim (to Psalm 2:7): In the decree of the writings it is written: ‘The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool’ (Psalm 110:1), and it is also written: ‘I saw in the night visions, and, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man; and he came even to the Ancient of days, and he was brought near before him. And there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, that all the people, nations, and languages should serve him’ (Daniel 7:13,14). In another comment, the verse is read: ‘I will tell of the decree: The Lord said unto me: Thou art My son . . . Ask of Me and I will give the nations for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession’ (Psalm 2:7,8). R. Yudan said: All these goodly promises are in the decree of the King, the King of Kings, who will fulfill them for the Lord Messiah. And Why all this? Because the Messiah occupies Himself with Torah. (See note G Beresh. Rabbah; note z Midrash Numbers; note D Sanhedrin; note W Midrash Tanchuma and Saadiah Gaon.)

Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and finding him, he said, Dost thou believe on the Son of God? He answered and said, And who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him? Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and he it is that speaketh with thee. And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him. John 9:35 38


Thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life: in thy presence is fullness of joy. Psalm 16:10,11 (Comp. John 10:17,18.)

As concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he hath spoken on this wise, I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David. Because he saith also in another Psalm, Thou wilt not give thy Holy One to see corruption. For David . . . saw corruption: but he whom God raised up saw no corruption. Acts 13:34 37 (Comp. Luke 24:1 12; Acts 26:8,13 18,22,23.)

He shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. Isaiah 53:10 (Comp. John 11:25.)

He asked life of thee, thou gavest it him; even length of days for ever and ever. Psalm 21:4 (Comp. John 5:26,21.)

T. Sukkah (52a): He (Messiah ben David) said in the presence (of God): “Lord of the world, I ask only life from Thee!” (God) answered Him: “Life? Before You opened Your mouth did Thy grandfather David prophesy in this matter concerning Thee (Psalm 21:4): ‘He asked life of thee, thou gavest it him’.”

Who in the days of his flesh, having offered up prayers and supplication with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and having been heard for his godly fear. Hebrews 5:7

Thus saith the Lord, In an acceptable time have I answered thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee; and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people. Isaiah 49:8

This Jesus did God raise up, whereof we all are witnesses. Acts 2:32 (Comp. Acts 2:24 31; 3:15; 4:33; 5:30; 10:40,41.)

He appeared to Cephas; then to the twelve; then he appeared to above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain until now, but some are fallen asleep; then he appeared to James; then to all the apostles; and last of all as unto one born out of due time, he appeared to me also. 1 Corinthians 15:5 8 (Comp. Luke 24:33 47; John 20:19 29; Acts 1:3.)

And when I (John) saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying, Fear not; I am the first and the last, and the Living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive for evermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades. Revelation 1:17,18

U. Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities Book XVIII, ch.3.sect 3): When Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and countless other wonderful things concerning him. (Comp. Acts 13:27-31).


Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? What is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest? Proverbs 30:4

Jesus said: No man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended out of heaven, even the Son of man, which is in heaven. John 3:13 (Comp John 6:62)

I will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their offence, and seek my face: in their affliction they will seek me earnestly. Hosea 5:15 (Comp Jeremiah 30:7; Daniel 12:1, Deuteronomy 4:30 Acts 3:19-21)

V. Midrash Rabbah Lamentations (41): The Holy One, blessed be He, said: I no longer have a dwelling-place in this land; I will withdraw My Shechinah from it and ascend to My former habitation; so it is written, “I will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their guilt, and seek my face” Hosea 5:15 (Comp Matthew 23:37-39: Luke 19:41-44). At that time the Holy One, blessed be He, wept and said: woe is Me! What have I done? I caused My Shechinah to dwell below on earth for the sake of Israel; but now that they have sinned, I have returned to My former habitation. Heaven forefend that I become a laughter to the nations and a byword to human beings!

Midrash Ruth (5:6): R. Berekiah said in the name of R. Levi: The future Redeemer (the Messiah) will be like the former Redeemer (Moses). Just as the former Redeemer revealed himself and later was hidden from them…so the future Redeemer will be revealed to them, and then hidden from them. (Comp. John 8:21-24: 14:28, 16:5-11.)

The Lord Jesus after he had spoken unto them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. Mark 16:19 (Comp Lk. 24:51; Acts 1:9).

Him did God exalt with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and remission of sins. Acts 5:31 (Comp Psalm 89:19).

Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive; thou hast received gifts among men, yea, among the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell with them. Psalm 68:18 (Comp Ephesians 4:9,10)

The righteousness which is of faith (Comp. Galatians 3:6-14) saith thus, Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? That is, to bring Christ down; or Who shall descend into the abyss? That is, to bring Christ up from the dead. But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart: that is the word of faith, which we preach: because if thou shalt confess with thy mouth Jesus as Lord, and shalt believe in thy heart that God raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. Romans 10:6-9 (Comp Psalm 139:7-10; Deuteronomy 30:11-14; Revelation 3:10,11; Luke 21:36)

I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a Son of man. Daniel 7:13 (Comp Revelation 1:7; 14:14.)

W. Midrash Tanchuma (toldot 14 to 1 Chronicles 3:24): And further it is said (Daniel 7:13): “I saw in the night visions, one like unto a son of man came with the clouds of heaven” . . . That is the Messiah, the son of David.

Saadiah Gaon: “Behold one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven”, This is the Messiah our righteousness. (See also notes z, D (Sanh. 98a), I, S.)

Jesus said: Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the land lament (Comp Zechariah 12:10-14), and they shall see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with great power and glory. Matthew 24:30 (See note w Sukkah 52a and Rabbi Moses Alshech)

The Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the Angel of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he cometh, saith the Lord of hosts. Malachi 3:1 (Comp. Haggai 2:6-7)

X. Maimonides (writes to R. Jacob Alfajumi): First shall He (the Messiah) appear in the land of Israel, for in the land of Israel shall be the beginning of His revelation, because it says: “And suddenly cometh to his temple the Lord, whom ye seek; even the Angel of the covenant, whom ye delight in; behold, he cometh, saith the Lord of hosts”. (Malachi 3:1)

Aben Ezra: The Lord is both the Divine Majesty and the Angel of the covenant.
Kimchi: The Lord is the King Messiah; He is also the Angel of the covenant.

And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord. Isaiah 59:20 (Comp. Isaiah 62:11; Revelation 22:7,12,20.)

Y. Sanhedrin (98a): R. Jochanan said, When thou seest a generation overwhelmed by many troubles as by a river, await Him (the Messiah), as it is written, “When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him” which is followed by: “And the Redeemer shall come to Zion”.

Talmud Palestine (Ta’anit 1:1,63c): What hindereth our salvation? Only repentance is wanting, anwered R.Shim’on b. Jochai. R. Acha said in the name of R.Tanchum b. Chijja: If Israel would repent only one day, the Messiah would come, as it saith “Today as you hear his voice” (Psalm 95:7).

Sanhedrin (98a): R. Joshua said: But it is elsewhere written (Daniel 12:7), “When he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished” (thus proving that Messiah’s coming is dependent only upon the utter prostration of Israel, not his repentance). At this R. Eliesar remained silent.


Z. Rabbi Moses Alshech: Our rabbis with one voice accept and affirm the opinion that the prophet is speaking of the King Messiah, and we shall ourselves also adhere to the same view.
Abarbanel: This is also the opinion of our own learned men in the majority of their Midrashim.
Targum Jonathan: Behold, my servant the Messiah . . .

Behold, my servant shall deal wisely, he shall be exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high.
Like as many were astonished at thee, his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men,
so shall he astonish many nations; kings shall shut their mouth at him:
for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they understand.

Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?
For he grew up before him as a tender plant and as a root out of a dry ground:
he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him.
He was despised, and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief:
and as one from whom men hide their face he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows:
yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.
But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities:
the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way;
and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.
He was oppressed, yet he humbled himself and opened not his mouth;
as a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; yea, he opened not his mouth.
By oppression and judgement he was taken away;
and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living?
for the transgression of my people was he stricken.
And they made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death;
although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.
Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief:
when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed,
he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.
He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:
by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many:
and he shall bear their iniquities.
Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great and he shall divide the spoil with the strong;
because he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors:
yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
Isaiah 52:13 53:12

(aa) Zohar (Part II, fol. 212a to Exodus 33:23): It is written, ‘He was wounded for our transgressions’ etc. The Messiah . . . summons every sickness, every pain, and every chastisement of Israel; they all come and rest upon Him. And were it not that He had thus lightened them off Israel and taken them upon Himself, there had been no man able to bear Israel’s chastisements for the transgression of the law; and this is that which is written: ‘Surely our sickness he hath carried’.

Pesiqta (on Isaiah 61:10): The world fathers (the patriarchs) will one day in the month of Nisan arise and say to (the Messiah): Ephraim our righteous Anointed, although we are Thy grandparents yet Thou art greater than we, for Thou hast borne the sins of our children, as it says (Isaiah 53:4,5): ‘But surely he hath borne our sicknesses and carried our pains: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted. But he was pierced because of our transgression, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was laid upon him and through his wounds we are healed’. Great oppressions were laid upon Thee, as it says (Isaiah 53:8): ‘By oppression and judgement he was taken away; but who considered in his time, that he was cut off out of the land of the living, that he was stricken because of the sins of our children, as it says (Isaiah 53:6): ‘But the Lord hath laid on him the guilt of us all’. (Comp. note t.)

They brought unto Jesus many possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with a word, and healed all that were sick: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmities and bare our diseases. Matthew 8:16,17

. . . Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, that ye should follow his steps: who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously: who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree, that we, having died unto sins, might live unto righteousness; by whose stripes ye are healed. For ye were going astray like sheep; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls. 1 Peter 2: 21 25 (Comp. Acts 8:27 35.)

(bb) Abraham Farissol (to Isaiah 53): “In this Parasha (Chapter) there seem to be considerable resemblances and allusions to the work of the Christian Messiah and to the events which are asserted to have happened to him, so that no other prophecy is to be found the gist and subject of which can be so immediately applied to Him.” (Unfortunately after this admission he seeks to apply it to Israel suffering as a nation.)

But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they believed not on him: that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake (Isaiah 53:1), Lord, who hath believed our report? And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God. John 12:37,38,42,43


1. Misrepresentation of so-called “Christians”

Jesus taught:

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like unto it, thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. Matthew 22:37-40 (See Deuteronomy 6:5; Leviticus 19:18)

Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets. Matthew 7:12

Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven. Matthew 5:44-45

Jesus gave the example:

This is my commandment, That ye love one another, even as I have loved you. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. John 15:12-13 (Comp 1 John 3:16; John 13:34)

Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. If I then, the Lord and the Master, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I have given you an example, that ye also should do as I have done to you. John 13:13-15 (Comp Philippians 2:5-8)

Jesus warned us:

Why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say? Luke 6:46

Not everyone that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy by thy name, and by thy name cast out devils, and by thy name do many mighty works? And then will I avow unto them, I never knew you. Depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruit ye shall know them Matthew 7:21-23,19,20 (Comp. John 13:35; Galatians 5:22; Romans 8:9.)

Verily, verily, I say unto thee, except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God…. he cannot enter into the kingdom of God… Ye must be born again. John 3:3-7. (Comp. Ezekiel 36:26; 1 Peter 1:23; Titus 3:5,; John 1:12.)

2. The spiritual blindness of the people

Moses said:

The Lord hath not given you an heart to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day. Deuteronomy 29:4

Isaiah said:

And he (the Lord) said: Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. Isaiah 6:9,10

Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears. — They know not, neither do they consider: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see, and their hearts, that they cannot understand. Isaiah 43:8 & 44:18. (Comp Jeremiah 5:21)

Jesus said:

Therefore speak I to them in parables; because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand. And unto them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, which saith, by hearing ye shall hear, and shall in no wise understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall in no wise perceive: For this people’s heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest haply they should perceive with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should turn again, and I should heal them. But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which ye see, and saw them not; and to hear the things which ye hear, and heard them not. Matthew 13:13-17

3. The spiritual blindness of the leaders

Isaiah said:

O my people, they which lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths. Isaiah 3:12

Take your pleasure and be blind… For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes; the prophets and your heads, the seers, hath he covered. And all vision is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed…And the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw nigh unto me, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear of me is a commandment of men which hath been taught them: therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder: and the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid. Isaiah 29:9 11,13,14 (Comp. 1 Cor. 1:18 21; 2:6 12.)

Jesus said (to the Pharisees and scribes of Jerusalem):

Ye have made void the word of God because of your traditions. Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying, This people honour me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. But in vain do they worship me, teaching as their doctrines the precepts of men. Matthew 15:1,6 9

I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst reveal them unto babes; yea, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in thy sight. Matthew 11:25,26

Isaiah said:

His watchmen are blind, they are all without knowledge; and these are shepherds that cannot understand: they have all turned to their own way, each one to his gain, even to the least of them. Isaiah 56:10,11 (Comp. Jeremiah 6:13,14; Ezekiel 34:1 10.)

Jesus said:

Let them alone: they are blind guides. And if the blind guide the blind, both shall fall into a pit. Matthew 15:14

Isaiah said:

For they that lead this people cause them to err: and they that are led of them are destroyed. Isaiah 9:16

Thine interpreters have transgressed against me. Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches. Isaiah 43:27,28


Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered, Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate, And the Lord have removed men far away, and there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land. But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall return, and shall be eaten: as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them, when they cast their leaves: so the holy seed shall be the substance thereof. Isaiah 6:9-13

Their minds were blinded: for until this very day at the reading of the old covenant the same veil remaineth unlifted; which veil is done away in Christ. But unto this day, whensoever Moses is read, a veil lieth upon their heart. But whensoever it shall turn to the Lord, the veil is taken away. 2 Cor. 3: 14 16

Ananias . . . laying his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, who appeared unto thee in the way which thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mayest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Spirit. And straightway there fell from his eyes as it were scales, and he received his sight. Acts 9:17,18 (Comp. John 9.)

Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace. What then? That which Israel seeketh for, that he obtained not; but the election obtained it, and the rest were hardened: according as it is written, God hath given them a spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, unto this day. Romans 11:5,7,8

As many were astonished at thee, his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men, so shall he startle many nations; kings shall shut their mouth at him: for what had not been told them shall they see, and what they had not heard shall they understand. Isaiah 52:14,15 (Comp Romans 11:25,26.) (See note E Maimonides.)

Behold, your God will come with vengeance, with the recompense of God: he will come and save you. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Isaiah 35:4,5 (Comp. Isaiah 32:1,3.)

They shall look upon me whom they have pierced. Zechariah 12:10

Thine eyes shall see the King in his beauty. Isaiah 33:17

Open my eyes, that I may see wondrous things in thy law. Psalm 119:18

Jesus said: Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and these are they which bear witness of me (John 5:39).

All things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the scriptures; and he said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: and that repentance: and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Luke 24:44 47

They received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so. Acts 17:11

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