Are the New Testament accounts of Jesus’ resurrection deeply conflicted?

Asher Norman’s twenty-second reason for rejecting Jesus as Messiah[1] is that “the resurrection accounts are deeply conflicted.”

Norman concludes:

“Amazingly virtually every detail of the resurrection accounts in each Gospel is directly contradicted by at least one other Gospel. Christianity literally stands or falls on the veracity of the resurrection. If Jesus was not resurrected, there is no indication or proof that he is the “son” of God, supposedly part of a triune deity. If Jesus is not “god,” then Christianity for a Jew is idolatry, the penalty for which is ‘koras’ (separation from God forever in the World to Come). Why should any Jew put their soul at risk based upon reports that are inconsistent and contradictory?”

If on the other hand Norman’s professed conflicts are resolved, and the gospel accounts stand as a credible witness, then the opposite is true, namely that anyone who does not heed the testimony to Jesus’ resurrection from the dead, puts his soul at risk and stands to be separated from God for eternity in the World to Come.

Since the consequence of reaching the wrong conclusion is severe, let the reader carefully weigh Norman’s objections against this response, and then judge for himself whether the Gospel accounts stand or not, as a credible witness to the resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth from the dead.

What to expect from multiple testimonies

We are dealing with multiple records of the same events. Our concern is whether these are accurate or conflicting. By what criteria must this be measured?

Firstly, how does the amount of similarity or variation between records affect their credibility?

Witnesses differ firstly in which details they observe, but also in the way they evaluate the importance of those details, and chose which to include in their synopsis or testimony. If for example the entire event is made of incidents and details that range from ‘A’ to ‘Z’, one witness may report on A, C, D, K, Y, etc. while the next witness may report B, C, D, F, P, for example. It is also possible that details E, P and Q ate omitted by all the witnesses – and we may need to assume and interpolate certain of these facts to complete the scenario.

The brevity of the account has a further bearing on this phenomenon. If the events of many days are condensed into a few paragraphs, the differences are likely to be more pronounced.

Secondly, language and style will differ from one witness to another. One may refer to a ‘scooter’ and the other to a ‘motorcycle’, and yet both speak of the same vehicle.

In view of this, the reliability of evidence in court proceedings, and our ability to establish the truth once all witnesses have testified, does not depend on a tight uniformity, or require that every detail is mentioned. Too much similarity may in fact lead to a negative inference that witnesses collaborated or conspired to fabricate or harmonise their evidence.

Definitions of ‘contradiction’ and ‘conflicting facts’

Having established that differences do not impugn the evidence presented, this is not true where testimonies contradict each other.

A contradiction arises, by the ordinary test, when two or more conflicting facts are held to be true at the same time. To illustrate: if in one statement, a woman professes to be ‘single’ while in a second she professes to be ‘married’, the statements are not contradictory unless both profess to be valid at the same time. (A supervening wedding or divorce will explain the difference.)

Two claims are conflicting when the one excludes the possibility of the other. Here is an example of statements that are not conflicting: two sisters board a flight to London as part of the South African Olympic squad. The husband of one of them reports, “tonight my wife left for London”. The brother of the two sisters reports, “this evening my two sisters left for London”, and the Head of the South African Olympic Committee reports “this evening our squad of athletes left for London.”  There is no conflict.

Another example: if a passenger is heading for London via Nairobi, and one witness mentions that the passenger left for Nairobi, and another that she left for London, there is no conflict.

These factors are directly relevant to the Gospels’ credibility.

Chronological account of resurrection events

We need to decide whether obvious differences between the four gospels reveal contradictory accounts of the same event, or whether they in fact describe different events in the sequence.

For this purpose, the various accounts of the four gospels are combined below into a single, chronological sequence.

Our narrative begins after the crucifixion and burial of Jesus. The disciples are reportedly hiding in the city, behind locked doors in fear of those who sent Jesus to the cross. Jesus’ tomb is located in a garden somewhere outside the city walls (probably a few hundred meters beyond the present “Damascus Gate”). After the crucifixion, the Pharisees requested the Roman governor to place a guard at the tomb. This is where our chronological account of resurrection events begins.

a. Guards were posted at the tomb to guard the body. [Matthew]                b. An angel came down to move the stone – causing an earth tremor, which left the guards very much afraid. [Matthew]

c. We assume that the guards fled from the tomb. [This fact is not mentioned in any of the gospel accounts.]

d. The women had prepared spices for the body. On their way to the tomb, they asked “who will roll the stone away from the entrance.” [Mark]

e. Mary Magdalene arrives at the tomb and finds the stone removed. [John]  When the women looked up they saw the stone already rolled away. [Mark]  They found the stone rolled away from the tomb. [Luke]  The ‘other Mary’ was with Mary Magdalene. [Matthew] Salome was also there. [Mark]  Joanna “and others” had also come to the tomb with the two Marys. [Luke]

f. They entered the tomb. [Mark]  They entered the tomb but found no body. [Luke]

g. They saw a young man dressed in white on the right hand side and they were alarmed. [Mark]  The angel  said to them, “don’t be afraid … he is not here, he has risen.” [Matthew]  The young man said, “don’t be alarmed, he is risen”. [Mark]  They saw two men in white and bowed down to them. The men asked “why do you look for the living among the dead. He is not here. He is risen. Remember his words.” [Luke]

h. The women remembered Jesus’ words. [Luke]

i. But, apparently, they are still not convinced that Jesus was resurrected. [This is assumed from the events that follow.]

j. The angel said to them “he is going ahead of you into Galilee … there you will see him.” [Matthew]  The young man in white tells the women to go tell the disciples and Peter, “He is going ahead of you into Galilee … there you will see him.” [Mark (j)]

k. The women ran from the tomb, afraid “yet filled with joy”. [Matthew]  They were afraid and fled from the tomb. [Mark]

l. They must have passed many bystanders on their way back to the disciples in the city [this is not expressly stated in any of the gospels], but did not tell any of them what they had seen. They did not tell anyone. [Mark]

m. The women ran to tell the disciples. [Matthew] Mary Magdalene comes running to Peter and John, saying “they have taken the Lord out and we don’t know where they put him.” [John]  When they came back from the tomb, the told all these things to the Eleven. [Luke]

n. Peter runs to the tomb and finds the linen strips. [Luke] Peter and John run to the tomb and find the strips of linen and the burial cloth folded up. [John]

o. Peter departs wondering what had happened. [Luke]  Peter and John returned home. [John]

p. Mary Magdalene stays behind and stands outside the tomb crying. [John]

q. Mary Magdalene looks into the tomb and sees the two men in white now sitting where the body had been. They asked “why are you crying” and she explained that the body had been removed. [John]

r. Mary Magdalene turned around and saw ‘the gardener’ who was in fact the risen Messiah. She asks him if it was he who carried the body away. [John]

s. Jesus says, “Mary” [John]  Jesus suddenly appears to them and greets them. [Matthew]

t. Mary says “Master”. [John]

u. The women come up to him, clasp his feet and worshipped him. [Matthew]

v. Jesus says, “don’t hold on to me, for I have not yet returned to the Father. Go instead and tell my brothers that I am returning to my Father and their Father.” [John]  Jesus says, “tell my brothers to go to Galilee … there they will see me.” [Matthew]

w. Mary Magdalene returns to the disciples in the city and tells them “I have seen the Lord” and conveys the message he had sent them. [John]

x. The disciples do not believe the women “because their words seemed to them like nonsense”. [Luke]

[It thus appears that Mary and perhaps some of the other women with her ran twice from the tomb to the disciples – the first time to share news of the empty tomb, and the second time to report that they had now seen the risen Messiah.]

xa. Some of the guards in the meantime report their earlier experience to the Chief Priests who bribed them with some money to say that the body had been stolen. [Matthew]

y. Later that same day, Jesus appeared incognito to two of his follower who were on their way to Emmaus. After he reveals himself to them, they return at once to Jerusalem to the Eleven and others assembled with them. [Luke]

z. The disciples and those gathered with them confirm to the two followers from Emmaus that it is the truth, since Jesus had in the meantime also appeared to Peter. [Luke]

aa. While they were still talking about this, Jesus stood among them and said “Peace be with you”. “Do not have doubts.” [Luke]  In the evening when the disciples were together, and the doors locked, Jesus appeared to them. [John]

bb. Jesus showed them his hands and side. [John]  Jesus showed them his hands and feet. [Luke]

cc. Jesus asked for something to eat. [Luke]

dd. Jesus opened their minds to the Scriptures so that they might believe. [Luke]

ee. Jesus blows the Holy Spirit on them with this commission, “If you forgive anyone their sins they will be forgiven”. [John]  Jesus tells them, “repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in my name to all nations, beginning in Jerusalem.” [Luke]

ff. Jesus tells them to “stay in Jerusalem” until the Holy Spirit is given. [Luke]

gg. The disciples tell Thomas who had not been there at the time. Thomas refuses to believe unless he will see and touch (put his fingers in the holes). [John]

hh. A week later Thomas was with them and the doors were again locked and Jesus appeared again and showed himself to Thomas. [John]

ii. Then the disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where the Lord had told them to go. [Matthew]

jj. Afterwards Jesus appeared to seven of them at the Sea of Tiberias (in Galilee) were they had gone out fishing. “This was the third time Jesus appeared to them after he had been raised from the dead.” [John]   When they saw Jesus they worshipped him but some doubted. [Matthew]

kk. Jesus said to them, “all authority is given me … go and make disciples of all nations.” [Matthew]

ll. On the way to Bethany, Jesus lifted up his hands and blessed them and was taken up into heaven. [Luke]

mm. They returned to Jerusalem. [Luke]

nn. They stayed continually at the Temple (in Jerusalem), praising God. [Luke]  This persisted until the Holy Spirit was given them at Pentecost.

I conclude the narrative at this point.


Asher Norman’s list of conflicts

I now respond to the ‘conflicts’ itemised by Norman.[2] These are presented here in the same ‘question and answer’ format in which they were originally published. (The references in square brackets refer back to the chronological sequence of events described above.)

  • Did Roman soldiers guard Jesus’ tomb?

A. No. (John 20:1)

B. Yes. (Matthew 28:4)

Response:  Soldiers guarded the tomb [a & b] but fled before the women arrived to dress the body with spices [c].  John’s narrative begins with the women’s arrival at the tomb [e].  Matthew’s account mentions the guards at the tomb, but not when the guards fled. Matthew does not state that the guard was still there when the women arrived.

  • The Gospels report that a large stone was placed in front of the opening to the tomb after Jesus’ body was placed inside. The stone was later removed. Was the stone removed when the women first arrived at the tomb?

A. Yes. (John 20:1, Mark 16:4, Luke 24:2)

B. No. (Matthew 28:1—2)

Response: The events described in verses 2 to 4 of Matthew 28 [a & b] occurred before the women arrive at the tomb. By the time the women arrived, the stone had been rolled away [e].

  • Jesus’ body was placed in a tomb after his death on Friday. According to the Gospels, Jesus’ body was not in the tomb when first inspected Sunday morning. How many people first approached the empty tomb?

A. One. Mary Magdalene alone. (John 20:1)

B. Three. Two Marys and Salome. (Mark 16:1)

C. Four. Two Marys, Joanna, and the other woman. (Luke 24:10)

D. Two. Mary Magdalene and the “other Mary.” (Matthew 28:1)

Response:  Not one of the Gospels mentions the number of women who visited the tomb. Each gospel writer mentions the woman or women he considers important, or knows of, or from whom he learnt of the events that transpired –  without claiming to provide a complete list of ALL who visited the tomb. John mentions Mary Magdalene only, as being the most important person in the party and the first to see the risen Messiah. A newspaper report stating, “on the 5th of May, Barak Obama flew to Moscow” does not suggest that Obama was the only person on the aeroplane.

In 2 Chronicles 36:10 it says that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took captive Jehoiachin king of Judah, whereas the parallel account in 2 Kings 24:15 states that Nebuchadnezzar took captive “Jehoiachin, his mother and his wives and officials”. Does Norman conclude from this that the accounts of the Babylonian exile (as contained in his Jewish scriptures) are ‘deeply conflicted’?

  • On first reaching the tomb, by whom and where were the women greeted?

A. By no one at all. (John 20:1, 2)

B. By one man sitting inside. (Mark 16:5)

C. By two men standing inside. (Luke 24:4)

D. By one angel sitting outside. (Matthew 28:2, 5)

Response:  The terms ‘angel’ and ‘man’ are not conflicting. Norman must surely have known that the term ‘angel’ (Hebrew, ‘malach’) means ‘messenger’, and applies equally to heavenly beings, and to ordinary human being. Even where the angel is a heavenly being, he often takes on the form of a mortal man. In Genesis 19 we read that two ‘angels’ [malachim] came to Lot in Sodom. We continue to read that the people of that city surrounded Lot’s house and demanded that these ‘men’ [ishim] be surrendered to them. Both the Torah and Gospels use the terms ‘angel’ and ‘man’ interchangeably.

Regarding the number of messengers present, if the inside of the tomb was not completely visible from the doorway, or from every vantage point, it explains that some of the women saw only one messenger at first, while others may have seen two from the outset. These messengers did not stay in one place, so they were seen in different locations during the course of events that ensued.

  • How many angels appeared at the tomb?

A. Two. (John 20:12)

B. One. (Matthew 28:2, 5)

Response:  The angel mentioned in Matthew 28:2 was responsible for moving the stone before the women arrived [b]. This same angel was seemingly present at the tomb when the women first got there [g] (Matthew 28:5). Mary Magdalene then left the tomb to call Peter and John [m]. Peter and John subsequently arrived, saw the empty tomb and promptly returned to the city [n & o]. Mary Magdalene stayed behind crying at the tomb [p] (John 20:11). Only then does Mary Magdalene see two angels inside the tomb [q] (John 20:12).

  • Did the angel(s) tell Mary(s) that Jesus was “risen?”

A. Yes. The one angel told the two Marys that Jesus had risen from the dead. (Matthew 28:6)

B. No. Initially, the two angels were not present in John’s Gospel to tell Mary Magdalene (alone) about Jesus’ resurrection. Therefore, after the one Mary found the tomb empty, she concluded that someone had removed Jesus’ body from the tomb. Mary (alone) then ran back to the disciples and reported. “They have taken the lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him!” (John 20:2)

Response:  We learn from Luke that the women were bewildered and seemingly incoherent in their report to the disciples (Luke 24:11). The fact that John cites the rational explanation for the missing body [m] rather than the supernatural one, does not mean that there was no angel (messenger) at the tomb, or that the messenger had not told Mary that Jesus had risen [g], or that Mary had not mentioned this to the apostles. Mary may not at first have been fully convinced that Jesus had risen [i], just as the apostles did not believe Mary when she later reported that she had seen Jesus alive [x]. Thomas did not even believe the testimony of all ten of his companions put together [gg], but needed first to see the risen body with his own eyes, and touch the wounds [hh].

  • Did the angel(s) tell Mary(s) that Jesus would appear in the Galilee?

A. Yes. The one angel told the two Marys to tell the disciples that Jesus had gone before them to the Galilee to meet them. (Matthew 28:7, Mark 16:6, Luke 24:5)

B. No. John’s one Mary later saw two angels inside the tomb, but they still did not tell Mary that Jesus was raised or that he was going to the Galilee. (John 20:12, 13)

Response:  John’s is the only Gospel that does not mention the instruction to meet in Galilee. John does not claim that ‘no’ such instruction was given. John’s Gospel in fact concludes (in chapter 21) with seven of the disciples meeting Jesus in the Galilee. The instruction recorded in the other gospels is thus confirmed by the meeting described in John’s gospel.

  • Where and to whom did the risen Jesus first reveal himself?

A. To Mary Magdalene, at the tomb. (John 20:1, 11—14)

B. To Mary Magdalene on the way to the Galilee. (Mark 16:7, 9)

C. To Cleopas and another, at Emmaus. (Luke 24:13, 18)

D. To the two Mary’s on the way to Jerusalem. (Matthew 26:16)

E. To Cephas (Peter) at an unknown location. (1 Cor. 15:5)

Response:  I start from the bottom and move up. Saul of Tarsus was a Pharisee, and mentions only male witnesses to the resurrection. According to rabbinic law, a woman’s testimony would not be valid to prove the resurrection. It is usual practice in the Hebrew Scriptures that only men are counted, and not women and children. See Exodus 14:7 and Numbers 11:21 as examples.   

As regards the women, Matthew, Mark and John all testify that the risen Messiah appeared first to Mary Magdalene. Matthew and Mark also mention the other women with her. At the time of Jesus’ appearance the woman were departing from the tomb, which was outside the city walls, and thus on their way back to the city (Jerusalem). There is consequently no conflict between Norman’s ‘A’ and ‘D’.

Norman’s B is a fabrication. Mark does not claim the women were on their way to the Galilee. On the contrary, Mark reports at verse 10 of chapter 16 that Mary went to report her encounter to the disciples (who were inside the city of Jerusalem).

Peter was the first male to witness the risen Christ (Luke 24:34 corroborates 1 Cor. 15:5). Even though Luke mentions the appearance on the way to Emmaus first before he mentions Jesus’ appearance to Peter, Luke does not state the chronological sequence of these events. We can safely conclude that Jesus appeared to Peter before he appeared to the disciples on their way to Emmaus.

  • There is a Gospel report that Mary Magdalene had an encounter with the “resurrected” Jesus. Did Mary receive word of the “resurrection” of Jesus from an angel before her actual encounter with Jesus?

A. No. She was first told by Jesus himself. (John 20:12)

B. Yes. She was first told by an angel. (Matthew 28:6)

Response:  Matthew 28:6 [g] occurs chronologically before John 20:12 [r].  Jesus only appeared to Mary on her second visit to the tomb.

  • What was Mary Magdalene’s state of mind when the “resurrected” Jesus first appeared to her?

A. She was ‘grief-stricken.’ (John 20:13, 15)

B. She was ‘joy filled.’ (Matthew 28:8—9)

Response:  John clearly describes Mary’s emotion BEFORE she realised that it was Jesus speaking to her. Matthew describes Mary’s emotion on hearing news of the resurrection and then meeting the risen Messiah.

  • When Mary and the “other” women were first informed that Jesus had “risen,” how did they react?

A. They “fearfully kept the news to themselves.” (Mark 16:8)

B. They “rushed to inform the disciples.” (Luke 24:9, Matthew 28:8)

Response: The women would have passed many bystanders on their way from the garden tomb to the place where the disciples were hiding in the city. Filled with fear and awe at their discovery, they did not stop to share the news with any of these, but pressed on until they reached the disciples, and then informed them.

  • How did Mary Magdalene initially report the news to the disciples?

A. She described her personal visitation by the “risen” Jesus. (John 20:18)

B. She described what she had been told by the “two men.” (Luke 24:9)

Response: Luke 29:4 comes chronologically before John 20:18.  At first the women discover the tomb empty [f], upon which they rush back to sound the alarm to the disciples in hiding [l]. At this point the women report what they had seen and heard from the messengers [m]. Peter and John then follow them back to the tomb but find only the bandage strips and the burial cloth folded up [n]. Peter and John return to their lodgings in the city [o], but the woman stay behind at the tomb [p]. It is only now that the risen Jesus appears to them [r]. They rush to the disciples a second time, this time with news that they had seen their Lord risen [w].

  • Alter seeing the angels, whom did Mary meet first, Jesus or the disciples?

A. Jesus. (John 20:14, Mark 16:9, Matthew 28:9)

B. The disciples. (Luke 24:4—10)

Response:  Not all gospel writers mention each and every encounter. Refer again to the chronological sequence of  events as compiled from the four gospels.

  • How many disciples were present when the risen Jesus appeared to them?

A. Eleven disciples (Judas was dead). (Matthew 28:16, Mark 16:14, Luke 24:33)

B. Ten disciples (Thomas was nor present). (John 20:24)

C. Twelve disciples (even though Judas was dead). (Matthew 27:5, Acts 1:18, 1 Corinthians 15:5)

Response: Even after the death of Judas, the remaining apostles were still sometimes referred to as “the Twelve”.  The prophet Ezekiel speaks of the “twelve tribes of Israel”, but then names thirteen “tribes” (Ezekiel 47:13 – 48:29). In addition, not all of the verses referenced by Norman speak of the same event.

  • How many times did Jesus appear after the resurrection?

A. Four. (John 20:14—17, and then 20:19—23, and then 20:26—29, and then 2 1:1—23)

B. Three. (Mark 16:9, and then 16:12, and then 16:14—18)

C. Two. (Luke 24:13—31 and then 24:36—51)

D. Two. (Matthew 28:9 and then 28:17—20)

F. Six. (1 Corinthians 15:5, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8)

Response: Only the letter to the Corinthians claims to provide a complete list of all the appearances to male witnesses. Each of the Gospels mention certain of the appearances, but not all. John states that Jesus’ appearance to the apostls at the Lake in Galilee was the “third” appearance to them. He does not profess to include the appearances to others in his count.

  • Where did Jesus’ post resurrection appearances take place’

A. They all occurred near Jerusalem. (Luke 24:13—53)

B. They all occurred in the Galilee. (Matthew 28:7—20)

Response: This is another one of Norman’s fabrications. The encounter mentioned in Matthew 28:9 clearly occurred near Jerusalem. Luke mentions the instruction to meet in the Galilee, but not the meeting itself.

  • Was Mary permitted to touch Jesus after the resurrection?

A. Yes. “They came and held him by his feet.” (Matthew 28:9)

B. Yes. “Behold my hands and my feet .. . handle me and see …” (Luke 24:39, John 1:1)

C. No. Jesus said to her, “Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father…” (John 20:17)

Response: It is unfortunate that he King James Version uses the word touch in the context of John 20:17, as the original Greek word is  ἅπτομαι  (aptomai) which means according to Strongs, “to fasten or attach oneself to”.  “Do not hold on to me,” Jesus may have said if speaking in English. The mere act of touching was not prohibited, as we see again in the verses from Luke and John referenced by Norman, where Jesus allowed Thomas Dydimus to probe the holes in his hands. Jesus concern was rather that his followers should no longer cling to his flesh (his physical presence) as he would henceforth return to the Father.

  • When did the apostles receive the holy spirit?

A. On the first Easter Sunday. (John 20:22)

B. On Pentecost, fifty days later. (Acts 1:5, 8, 2:1—4)

Response:  John does not claim that the disciples received the Holy Spirit at that time. Jesus tells them to receive the Spirit in the context of their commission to preach the gospel. This is clear from the parallel account in Luke 24:47-49.

Where does this leave us?

Many of the apparent conflicts listed by Asher Norman could have been removed – if only the four Gospel writers had sat together and made an attempt to harmonise their resurrection accounts! Clearly this did not happen, and the first conclusion we are compelled to reach – whether or not we accept their accounts as accurate – is this: that the four accounts were written independently of each other, and each writer presented his own unique testimony to the events that occurred, without reference to the others.

Next, we should consider – if the resurrection record as we have it was compiled and preserved by the Hand of God, and according to His design – whether He would not have desired and ordained four more harmonious accounts? This is perhaps a more difficult question. But here, too, we have an answer.

At no point in Israel’s history, did the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob ever force His people to believe or follow Him. When the Torah was presented as the basis of a covenant with Israel, it depended on their acceptance: “Everything the LORD has said we will do”. The people promptly disobeyed and served the golden calf. There was never a Prophet of God among the Jews whom they did not reject and persecute. And God allowed them to do this. “Should we call down fire from heaven,” Jesus’ apostles asked him – in the face of rejection and persecution. “You know not what manner of spirit is in you,” was Jesus’ response. Compulsion was never God’s wish or methodology.

It remains true that if ever there were to be sufficient, absolutely incontrovertible evidence for the death, resurrection and life of faith offered to humanity, in the Messiah Jesus, that many would then be forced to believe reluctantly and begrudgingly – against their will. This is clearly not what the sovereign God is after. He desires that the humble will see Him, and then respond freely – without compulsion – to His love, His mercy and His grace.

Those who sustain the proud conviction that they will one day stand before God in their own righteousness will resist this offer. They will not believe, because they do not want to believe. For these, there is ample excuse not to believe – for God Himself has ordained:

“The LORD Almighty is the one you are to regard as holy,
He is the one you are to fear, He is the one you are to dread,
And He will be a sanctuary;
but for both houses of Israel He will be
a stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall.
And for the people of Jerusalem he will be a trap and a snare.
Many of them will stumble;
they will fall and be broken, they will be snared and captured.”
(Isaiah 8:13-15)

 Yet, for those who want to believe, there is a perfectly rational, altogether acceptable answer or explanation for every possible ‘conflict’, ‘contradiction’ or ‘problem’ that might arise from the Bible.

With this in mind, I have written this response for you who believe. May the Lord resolve every doubt that enters, and sustain your faith until He comes.

[1] Asher Norman is author of the book, “Twenty-six reasons why Jews don’t believe in Jesus”, published by ‘Black White and Read’, Los Angeles.

[2] Norman also lists objections relative to the trial and crucifixion of Jesus which are not relevant to the present enquiry.